Temporal discharge patterns of tectal and medullary neurons chronically recorded during snapping toward prey in toads Bufo bufo spinosus
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
In freely moving toads, the temporal discharge patterns of tectal and medullary neurons were observed during prey-catching.
Tectal T5.2 and T8.1 neurons displayed a premotor warming up firing that in the former was addressed specifically to prey orienting or snapping and in the latter generally to almost any kind of body movement.
The temporal discharge patterns of T5.2 neurons during snapping were different from those during orienting toward prey. Snapping started in the peak phase of warming up; firing was immediately terminated during the snap; thereafter some rebound activity was observed. Orienting started after the premotor warming up in the declining phase whilst the neuron kept on firing during orienting and then settled when the orienting movement was completed.
In toads which were not motivated to catch prey — comparabl to immobilized ones — the discharge frequency of T5.2 neurons toward a prey stimulus revealed no such warming up.
Because it is known that prey-selective T5.2 neurons are controlled by pretectal inhibitory influences, the following experiment was conducted: during recording a T5.2 neuron a pretectal lesion was applied ipsilaterally to the recording site. After a few seconds, the neuron showed a strong premotor wanning up in response to any kind of moving object, followed by prey-catching.
In the medulla oblongata, different H-type neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus displayed specific discharge patterns which resembled the tongue protractor and retractor muscle activities; a third type resembled the activity of the genio/sterno-hyoid muscle, which are suggested to stabilize the hyoid bone during snapping.
There were medullary M8-type neurons with properties similar to T8.1.
Snapping could be triggered by electrical stimulation of the optic tectum in the representation of the frontal visual field, but not by stimulation in the hypoglossal nucleus or the adjacent medial reticular formation.
A concept of a neuronal circuit for the coordination of tongue muscle contractions in response to prey is proposed.
- Borchers H-W (1982) Correlation between behavior patterns and single unit responses from the optic tectum in the freely moving toad (Bufo bufo L.). In: Trappl R, Pask G, Ricciardi L (eds) Progress in cybernetics and systems research, vol 9. Hemisphere Publ Corp, Washington, pp 109–117
- Borchers H-W, Ewert J-P (1978) Eye closure in toads (Bufo bufo L.) does not produce off-responses in retinal on-off ganglion cells: a question of efferent commands. J Comp Physiol 125:301–303
- Burghagen H (1979) Der Einfluß von figuralen, visuellen Mustern auf das Beutefangverhalten verschiedener Anuren. PhD Thesis, Univ Kassel
- Burghagen H, Ewert J-P (1982) Question of “head preference” in response to worm-like dummies during prey capture of toads Bufo bufo. Behav Processes 7:295–306
- Chevalier G, Deniau JM (1990) Disinhibition as a basic process in the expression of striatal functions. Trends Neurosci 13:277–280
- Collett TS (1977) Stereopsis in toads. Nature 267:349–351
- Deban SM, Nishikawa KC (1992) The kinematics of prey capture and the mechanism of tongue protraction in the green tree frog Hyla cinerea. J Exp Biol 170:135–156
- Ewert J-P (1984) Tectal mechanisms that underlie prey-catching and avoidance behaviors in toads. In: Vanegas H (ed) Comparative neurology of the optic tectum. Plenum Press, New York, pp 247–416
- Ewert J-P (1987) Neuroethology of releasing mechanisms: prey-catching in toads. Behav Brain Sci 10:337–405
- Ewert J-P, Framing EM, Schürg-Pfeiffer E, Weerasuriya A (1990) Responses of medullary neurons to moving visual stimuli in the common toad. I. Characterization of medial reticular neurons by extracellular recording. J Comp Physiol A 167:495–508
- Ewert J-P, Beneke TW, Schürg-Pfeiffer E, Schwippert WW, Weerasuriya A (1993) Sensori-motor processes that underlie feeding behavior in tetrapods. In:Bels V, Chardon M, Vandevalle P (eds) Biomechanics of feeding in invertebrates. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Paris Tokyo (in press)
- Finkenstädt T, Adler NT, Allen TO, Ebbesson SOE, Ewert J-P (1985) Mapping of brain activity in mesencephalic and diencephalic structures of toads during presentation of visual key stimuli: a computer assisted analysis of 14C-2DG autoradiographs. J Comp Physiol A 156:433–445
- Gans C, Gorniak GC (1982a) Functional morphology of lingual protrusion in marine toads (Bufo marinus). Am J Anat 163:195–222
- Gans C, Gorniak GC (1982b) How does the toad flip its tongue? Test of two hypotheses. Science 216:1335–1337
- Gillette R, Kovac MP, Davis WJ (1978) Command neurons in Pleurobranchaea receive synaptic feedback from the motor network they excite. Science 199:798–801
- Gottschaldt K-M, Vahle-Hinz C (1979) A simplified method of making steel microelectrodes. Pflügers Arch 382:52
- Grobstein P (1991) Directed movement in the frog: a closer look at a central representation of spacial location. In: Arbib MA, Ewert J-P (eds) Visual structures and integrated functions. Research notes in neural computing, vol 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 125–138
- Grüsser O-J, Grüsser-Cornehls U (1976) Neurophysiology of the anuran visual system. In: Llinás R, Precht W (eds) Frog neurobiology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 297–385
- Hikosaka O (1989) Role of basal ganglia in initiation of voluntary movements. In: Arbib MA, Amari S (eds) Dynamic interactions in neural networks: models and data. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 53–167
- Ingle D (1970) Visuomotor functions of the frog optic tectum. Brain Behav Evol 3:57–71
- Laming PR (1989) Central representation of arousal. In: Ewert J-P, Arbib MA (eds) Visuomotor coordination: amphibians, comparisons, models, and robots. Plenum Press, New York, pp 693–727
- Lázár G (1989) Cellular architecture and connectivity of the frog's optic tectum and pretectum. In: Ewert J-P, Arbib MA (eds) Visuomotor coordination: amphibians, comparisons, models, and robots. Plenum Press, New York, pp 175–199
- Matsumoto N, Schwippert WW, Beneke TW, Ewert J-P (1991) Forebrain-mediated control of visually guided prey-catching in toads: investigation of striato-pretectal connections with intracellular recording/labeling methods. Behav Processes 25:27–40
- Matsushima T, Satou M, Ueda K (1989) Medullary reticular neurons in the Japanese toad: morphology and excitatory inputs from the optic tectum. J Comp Physiol A 166:7–22
- Megela A, Borchers H-W, Ewert J-P (1983) Relation between activity of tectal neurons and prey-catching behavior in toads Bufo bufo. Naturwissenschaften 70:100–101
- Mountcastle VB (1976) The world around us: neural command functions for selective attention. The FO Schmitt Lecture in Neuroscience 1975. Neurosci Res Prog Bull 14. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 1–47
- Nishikawa KC, Gans C (1990) Neuromuscular control of prey capture in the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Am Zool 30:141A
- Nishikawa KC, Gans C (1992) The role of hypoglossal sensory feedback during feeding in the marine toad, Bufo marinus. J Exp Zool 264:245–252
- Nishikawa KC, Anderson CW, Deban SM, O'Reily JC (1992) The evolution of neural circuits controlling feeding behavior in frogs. Brain Behav Evol 40:125–140
- Satou M, Ewert J-P (1985) The antidromic activation of tectal neurons by electrical stimuli applied to the caudal medulla oblongata in the toad Bufo bufo L. J Comp Physiol A 157:739–748
- Satou M, Matsushima T, Takeuchi H, Ueda K (1985) Tongue-muscle-controlling motoneurons in the Japanese toad: topography, morphology and neuronal pathways from the “snappingevoking area” in the optic tectum. J Comp Physiol A 157:717–737
- Schnellenpfeil W (1980) Experimentelle Analyse der Aktivität einzelner Neuronen aus dem Mittelhirn freibeweglicher Erdkröten (Bufo bufo L.) unter Zuhilfenahme eines Computers. Staatsexam Thesis, Dept Neurobiology, FB 19, Univ Kassel
- Schnellenpfeil W (1993) Telemetrische Ableitungen von Neuronen aus dem Mesencephalon und der Medulla oblongata der freibeweglichen Erdkröte (Bufo bufo L.). Ph D Thesis, Dept Neurobiology, FB 19, Univ Kassel
- Schürg-Pfeiffer E (1989) Behavior-correlated properties of tectal neurons in freely moving toads. In: Ewert J-P, Arbib MA (eds) Visuomotor coordination: amphibians, comparisons, models, and robots. Plenum Press, New York, pp 451–480
- Schürg-Pfeiffer E, Spreckelsen C, Schluckebier R, Ewert J-P (1990a) Computer-aided comparison between chronically recorded neuronal activities and behavior in toads. In: Elsner N, Roth G (eds) Brain-perception-cognition. Proc 18th Göttinger Neurobiol Conference. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, p 85
- Schürg-Pfeiffer E, Spreckelsen C, Ewert J-P (1990b) Tectal smallfield neurons recorded in prey-catching toads are sensitive to the real object size. Eur J Neurosci 3:186 (Suppl)
- Schwippert WW, Beneke TW, Ewert J-P (1990) Responses of medullary neurons to moving visual stimuli in the common toad. II. An intracellular recording and cobalt-lysine labeling study. J Comp Physiol A 167:509–520
- Spreckelsen C (1987) Relation zwischen neuronalen Aktivitäten in der Medulla oblongata und Bewegungsmustern bei der Erdkröte. Dipl Thesis, Univ Marburg
- Weerasuriya A, Ewert J-P (1981) Prey-selective neurons in the toad's optic tectum and sensorimotor interfacing: HRP studies and recording experiments. J Comp Physiol 144:429–434
- Wurtz RH (1979) Modulation of the primate visual system by attention and readiness to respond. In: Kandel ER, Krasne FB, Strumwasser F, Truman JW (eds) Cellular mechanisms in the selection and modulation of behavior. Neurosci Res Prog Bull, vol 17. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 562–576
- Temporal discharge patterns of tectal and medullary neurons chronically recorded during snapping toward prey in toads Bufo bufo spinosus
Journal of Comparative Physiology A
Volume 173, Issue 3 , pp 363-376
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Chronic single cell recording
- Optic tectum
- Medulla oblongata
- Industry Sectors