A neural network model rapidly learning gains and gating of reflexes necessary to adapt to an arm's dynamics
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- Kalveram, K.T. Biol. Cybern. (1992) 68: 183. doi:10.1007/BF00201440
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Effects of dynamic coupling, gravity, inertia and the mechanical impedances of the segments of a multi-jointed arm are shown to be neutralizable through a reflex-like operating three layer static feedforward network. The network requires the proprioceptively mediated actual state variables (here angular velocity and position) of each arm segment. Added neural integrators (and/or differentiators) can make the network exhibit dynamic properties. Then, actual feedback is not necessary and the network can operate in a pure feedforward fashion. Feedforward of an additional load can easily be implemented into the network using “descendent gating”, and a negative feedback control loop added to the feedforward control reduces errors due to external noise. A training, which combines a least squared error based simultaneous learning rule (LSQ-rule) with a “self-imitation algorithm” based on direct inverse modeling, enables the network to acquire the whole inverse dynamics, limb parameters included, during one short training movement. The considerations presented also hold for multi-jointed manipulators.