Molecular phylogeny based on the κ-casein and cytochrome b sequences in the mammalian suborder Ruminantia
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- Chikuni, K., Mori, Y., Tabata, T. et al. J Mol Evol (1995) 41: 859. doi:10.1007/BF00173165
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Nucleotide sequences for the κ-casein precursor proteins have been determined from the genomic DNAs or hair roots of the Ruminantia. The coding regions, exons 2, 3, and 4, were amplified separately via the three kinds of PCRs and then directly sequenced. The primers were designed from the sequence of bovine κ-casein gene; they were applicable for the amplification of the κ-casein genes from the 13 species in the Ruminantia except exon 2 of the lesser mouse deer. These results permitted an easy phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of an autosomal gene. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from the mature K-casein sequences and compared with the tree of the cytochrome b genes which were sequenced from the same individuals. The Cervidae (sika deer, Cervus nippon) were separated from the branch of the Bovidae on the tree of κ-casein genes with a relatively high confidence level of the bootstrap analysis, but included in the branch of the Bovidae on the tree of cytochrome b genes. The κ-casein tree indicated a monophyly of the subfamily Caprinae, although the internal branches were uncertain in the Caprinae. The tree based on the nucleotide sequences of cytochrome b genes clearly showed the relationships of the closely related species in the genus Capricornis consisting of serow (C. smatorensis), Japanese serow (C. crispus), and Formosan serow (C. swinhoei). These results would be explained by the difference of resolving power between the κ-casein and the cytochrome b sequences.