Artificial Intelligence Review

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 251–277

Intelligent tutoring systems: an overview

  • Hyacinth S. Nwana

DOI: 10.1007/BF00168958

Cite this article as:
Nwana, H.S. Artif Intell Rev (1990) 4: 251. doi:10.1007/BF00168958


This is a non-expert overview of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs), a way in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques are being applied to education. It introduces ITSs and the motivation for them. It looks at its history: its evolution from Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI). After looking at the structure of a ‘typical’ ITS, the paper further examines and discusses some other architectures. Several classic ITSs are reviewed, mainly due to their historical significance or because they best demonstrate some of the principles of intelligent tutoring. A reasonably representative list of ITSs is also provided in order to provide a better appreciation of this vibrant field as well as reveal the scope of existing tutors. The paper concludes, perhaps more appropriately, with some of the author's viewpoints on a couple of controversial issues in the intelligent tutoring domain.

Copyright information

© Inteliest Ltd 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyacinth S. Nwana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK