Pigeon homing: the effect of a clock-shift is often smaller than predicted
- Cite this article as:
- Wiltschko, R., Kumpfmüller, R., Muth, R. et al. Behav Ecol Sociobiol (1994) 35: 63. doi:10.1007/BF00167061
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This analysis is based on 103 releases with 6-h clock-shifted pigeons of various ages and experiences. Resetting the internal clock normally leads to a significant change in initial orientation; however, in half of the cases, the induced deflections are significantly smaller than predicted by the sun compass hypothesis. The relative size of the deflections decreases with increasing age and experience (Fig. 3). Only young pigeons with limited experience respond as expected, while old birds show deflections which are, on the average, only slightly more than half of the predicted size, except at extremely familiar sites (Table 2). There is no difference between fast and slow shifts (Fig. 4). It is not possible to clearly specify under what circumstances smaller deflections occur; previous clock-shifts (Fig. 5), familiarity with the release site (Table 4) and duration of the shifting procedure (Table 5) do not seem to be the reasons. Clock-shifting also tends to decrease the vector lengths and has a marked effect on homing performance (Table 7). Nevertheless, considerable numbers of clock-shifted birds return on the day of release before their internal clock has begun to be reset back to normal. The general role of the sun compass in bird orientation is considered and theoretical implications of our findings are discussed in view of the ‘map and compass’-model and the possibility that an alternative, non-time-compensating compass is used in parallel with the sun compass.