, Volume 4, Issue 2-3, pp 209-220

Tsunami bore runup

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Nearshore behaviors of tsunamis, specifically those formed as a single uniform bore, are investigated experimentally in a laboratory environment. The transition process from tsunami bore to runup is described by the ‘momentum exchange’ process between the bore and the small wedge-shaped water body along the shore: the bore front itself does not reach the shoreline directly, but the large bore mass pushes the small, initially quiescent water in front of it. The fluid motions near the runup water line appear to be complex. The complex flow pattern must be caused by irregularities involved in the driving bore and turbulence advected into the runup flow. Those experimental results suggest that the tsunami actions at the shoreline involve significant mean kinetic energy together with violent turbulence. Even though the behaviors of bore motion were found to be different from those predicted by the shallow-water wave theory, the maximum runup height appears to be predictable by the theory if the value of the initial runup velocity is modified (reduced). Besides the friction effect, this reduction of the initial runup velocity must be related to the transition process as well as the highly interacting three-dimensional runup motion.