Numerical simulation of tsunamis — Its present and near future
 N. Shuto
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Hindcasting of a tsunami by numerical simulations is a process of lengthy and complicated deductions, knowing only the final results such as runup heights and tide records, both of which are possibly biased due to an insufficient number of records and due to hydraulic and mechanical limitation of tide gauges. There are many sources of error. The initial profile, determined with seismic data, can even be different from the actual tsunami profile. The numerical scheme introduces errors. Nonlinearity near and on land requires an appropriate selection of equations. Taking these facts into account, it should be noted that numerical simulations produce satisfactory information for practical use, because the final error is usually within 15% as far as the maximum runup height is concerned.
The stateoftheart of tsunami numerical simulations is critically summarized from generation to runup. Problems in the near future are also stated. Fruitful application of computer graphics is suggested.
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 Title
 Numerical simulation of tsunamis — Its present and near future
 Journal

Natural Hazards
Volume 4, Issue 23 , pp 171191
 Cover Date
 19910601
 DOI
 10.1007/BF00162786
 Print ISSN
 0921030X
 Online ISSN
 15730840
 Publisher
 Kluwer Academic Publishers
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 Tsunami initial profile
 tsunami propagation
 tsunami runup
 tsunami numerical simulation
 tsunami secondary disaster
 computer graphics
 Industry Sectors
 Authors

 N. Shuto ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Department of Civil Engineering, Tohoku University, 980, Aoba, Sendai, Japan