Progressive sequence alignment and molecular evolution of the Zn-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family
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- Sun, HW. & Plapp, B.V. J Mol Evol (1992) 34: 522. doi:10.1007/BF00160465
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Sequences of 47 members of the Zn-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family were aligned progressively, and an evolutionary tree with detailed branch order and branch lengths was produced. The alignment shows that only 9 amino acid residues (of 374 in the horse liver ADH sequence) are conserved in this family; these include eight Gly and one Val with structural roles. Three residues that bind the catalytic Zn and modulate its electrostatic environment are conserved in 45 members. Asp 223, which determines specificity for NAD, is found in all but the two NADP-dependent enzymes, which have Gly or Ala. Ser or Thr 48, which makes a hydrogen bond to the substrate, is present in 46 members. The four Cys ligands for the structural zinc are conserved except in ζ-crystallin, the sorbitol dehydrogenases, and two bacterial enzymes. Analysis of the evolutionary tree gives estimates of the times of divergence for different animal ADHs. The human class II (π) and class III (κ) ADHs probably diverged about 630 million years ago, and the newly identified human ADH6 appeared about 520 million years ago, implying that these classes of enzymes may exist or have existed in all vertebrates. The human class I ADH isoenzymes (α, β, and γ) diverged about 80 million years ago, suggesting that these isoenzymes may exist or have existed in all primates. Analysis of branch lengths shows that these plant ADHs are more conserved than the animal ones and that class III ADHs are more conserved than class I ADHs. The rate of acceptance of point mutations (PAM units) shows that selection pressure has existed for ADHs, implying that these enzymes play definite metabolic roles.