A longitudinal study on the incidence and transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV infection among drug users in Amsterdam
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
In the present study data on the incidence of HBV and HCV were used to indicate the prevalence of and trends in risk behavior, assuming that drug users (DUs) who become infected with HBV or HCV are also at risk for infection with HIV. In addition, we determined to that extent the transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV differed. DUs were selected from a cohort study in Amsterdam, had at least one follow-up visit between December 1985 and September 1989 and reported never to have had homosexual contacts. Among 305 DUs, of whom 70% injected recently, the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV were 31%, 68% and 65% respectively. These prevalences were strongly interrelated and the same risk factors were found. The cumulative incidence of either HIV or HBV or HCV was 30% among prevalent HIV-negatives. Despite a previously reported reduction in risk behavior, only the HIV incidence tended to decrease initially, and after 1986 the incidences of HIV, HBV and HCV remained disturbingly high and stable (mean: 4, 9 and 10 per 100 person-years, respectively). As at present HBV appears to be transmitted more heterosexually than HIV in our study group and the HIV-epidemic may follow the HBV-epidemic in its transmission patterns, preventive activities targeted at both injecting and sexual behavior should be expanded.
- AlexanderN.J. (1990): Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: virus entry into the male and female tract - Fertil. Steril. 54: 1–18.
- AlterH.J., PurcellR.H., ShihJ.W., MelpolderJ.C., HoughtonM., ChooQ.L. and KuoG. (1989): Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in prospectively followed transfusion recipients with acute and chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis - N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 1494–1500.
- AlterM.J., ColemanP.J., AlexanderW.J., KramerE., MillerJ.K., MandelE., HadlerS.C. and MargolisH.S. (1989): Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis - JAMA 262: 1201–1205.
- AlterM.J., HadlerS.C., JudsonF.N., et al. (1990): Risk factors for acute non-A, non-B hepatitis in the United States and association with hepatitis C virus infection - JAMA 264: 2231–2235.
- AmeijdenE.J.C.van, HoekJ.A.R.van den, HaastrechtH.J.A.van and CoutinhoR.A. (1992): The harm reduction approach and risk factors for HIV seroconversion in injecting drug users, Amsterdam -Am. J. Epidemiol. Vol. 136: 136–143.
- BlowerS. (1991): Behaviour Change and stabilization of seroprevalence in communities of injecting drug users: correlation or causation? - J. AIDS 4: 920–923.
- BuningE.C., CoutinhoR.A., BrusselG.H.A.van, SantenG.W.van and ZadelhofA.W.van (1986): Preventing AIDS in drug addicts in Amsterdam (letter) - Lancet 65: 146–150.
- ChamotE., HirschelB., WintschJ., RobertC.F., GarielV., DeglonJ.J., YerlyS. and PerrinL. (1990): Loss of antibodies against hepatitis C virus in HIV-seropositive intravenous drug users - AIDS 4: 1275–1277.
- CoombsR.W., CollierA.N., AllainJ.P., NikoraB., LeutherM., GjersetG.F. and CoreyL. (1989): Plasma viremia in human immunodeficiency virus infection- N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 1626–1631.
- DoornumG.J.J.van, HooykaasC., CuypersM.T., LindenM.M.D.van der and CoutinhoR.A. (1991): Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among heterosexuals with multiple partners - J. Med. Virol. 35: 22–27.
- EstebanJ.I., ViladominL., GonzalesA., et al. (1989): Hepatitis C virus antibodies among risk groups in Spain - 2: 294.
- Giancario E., De Sanctis G.M., Barbacini LG., Bianchi P., Russini M., Vassiliov V. and Chircu L.V. (1991): Viral hepatitis markers in HIV positive patients —Presented at the Seventh International Conference on AIDS, Florence, Italy M.B. 2205.
- HaastrechtH.J.A.van, HoekJ.A.R.van den, BardouxC., Leentvaar-KuypersA. and CoutinhoR.A. (1991): The course of the HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users in Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Am. J. Public Health 81: 59–62.
- HaganH., ReidT., DesJarlaisC., PurchaseD., FriedmanS.R. and BellT.A. (1991): The incidence of HBV infection and syringe exchange programs -JAMA 266: 1646–1647.
- HartG.J., WoodwardN., JhonsonA.M., TigheJ., ParryJ.V. and AdlerM.W. (1991): Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and associated risk behaviours in clients of a needle-exchange in central London - AIDS 5: 543–547.
- HartgersC., SantenG.W.van, HaastrechtH.J.A.van, HoekJ.A.R.van den, AkkerR.van den and CoutinhoR.A. (1992): De HIV-prevalentie onder druggebruikers die methadon verstrekt krijgen bij de drugsafdeling van de GG&GD to Amsterdam - T. Soc. Gezondheidsz. 70: 275–279.
- HayashiP.H., FlynnN., McCurdyS.A., KuramotoI.K., HollandP.V. and ZeldisJ.B. (1991): Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus - J. Med. Vir. 33: 177–180.
- HigginsD.L., GalavottiC., O'ReillyK.R., et al. (1991): Evidence for the effects of HIV antibody counseling and testing on risk behaviors - JAMA 266: 2419–2429.
- HoekJ.A.R.van den, CoutinhoR.A., HaastrechtH.J.A.van, ZadelhofA.W.van and GoudsmitJ. (1988): Prevalence and risk factors of HIV infections among drug users and drug-using prostitutes in Amsterdam -AIDS 2: 55–60.
- HoekJ.A.R.van den, HaastrechtH.J.A.van and CoutinhoR.A. (1989): Risk reduction among intravenous drug users in Amsterdam under the influence of AIDS - Am. J. Public Health 79: 1355–1357.
- HoekJ.A.R.van den, HaastrechtH.J.A.van, GoudsmitJ., WolfF.de and CoutinhoR.A. (1990): Prevalence, Incidence, and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection among drug users in Amsterdam - J. Infect. Dis. 162: 823–826.
- HolodniyM., KatzensteinD.A., SenguptaS., et al. (1991): Detection and quantification of human immunodeficiency virus RNA in patient serum by use of the polymerase chain reaction - J. Infect. Dis. 163: 862–866.
- HooykaasC., PlichtJ.van der, DoornumG.J.J.van, LindenM.M.D.van der and CoutinhoR.A. (1989): Heterosexuals at risk for HIV: differences between private and commercial partners in sexual behavior and condom use - AIDS 3: 525–532.
- HorsburghC.R., JasonJ., LonginiI.M., et al. (1989): Duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection before detection of antibody - Lancet 2: 637–640.
- MarcellinP., Martinot-PeignouxM., BoyerN., PounteauM., AmountP., ErlingerS. and BenhamouJ.P. (1991): Second generation (RIBA) test in diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C - Lancet 337: 551–552.
- MeleA., RezzaG., Stazi MagillO.W. and PasquiniP. (1990): Incidence of acute hepatitis B in injecting drug users as an indicator of continuing HIV transmission. International implications - AIDS 4: 598–599.
- MerminJ.H., HolodniyM., KatzensteinD.A. and MeriganT.C. (1991): Detection of human immunodeficiency virus DNA and RNA in semen by the polymerase chain reaction - J. Infect. Dis. 164: 769–772.
- MortimerP.P., CohenB.J., LittonP.A., VanderveldeE.M., BassendineM.F., BrindA.M. and HamblingM.H. (1989): Hepatitis C virus antibody - Lancet 2: 798.
- NicolosiA., MusiccoM., SaraccoA., MolinariS., ZilianiN. and LazzarinA. (1990): Incidence and risk factors of HIV infection: a prospective study of seronegative drug users from Milan and Northern Italy, 1987–1989 - Epidemiology 1: 453–459.
- PachuckiC.T., LentinoJ.R., SchaafD., SchaeferM.R., HeynenC.A., HolzerT.J., DawsonG.J. and DorusW. (1991): Low prevalence of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus in sex partners of seropositive intravenous drug users - J. Infect. Dis. 164: 820–821.
- PoelC.L.van der, ReesinkH.W., SchaarbergW., Leentvaar-KuypersA., BakkerE., Exel-DehlersP.J. and LelieP.N. (1990): Infectivity of blood seropositive for hepatitis C virus antibodies - Lancet 335: 558–560.
- RobinsonW.S. (1990): Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus. In: Mandell G.L., Douglas R.G., Bennet J.E., eds. Principles and practice of infectious diseases - 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone Inc. pp. 1204–1231.
- RoggendorfM., DeinhartF., RasshoferR., et al. (1989): Antibodies to hepatitis C virus among German blood donors - Lancet 2: 324.
- Sherlock C., Sibau L., Cook D., Middleton P. and Gill P. (1991): Association between hepatitis C (HCV) antibody and HIV antibody in high risk groups for HIV infection — Presented at the Seventh International Conference on AIDS, Florence, Italy M.B. 2230.
- SimmondsP., LainsonF.A.L., CuthbertR., SteelC.M., PeuthererJ.F. and LudlamC.A. (1987): HIV infection and antibody detection: variable responses to infection in the Edinburgh haemophilic cohort - Br. Med. J. 296: 593–598.
- TaylorF. (1991): Decline in hepatitis B cases - Am. J. Public Health 81: 221–222.
- TorJ., LlibreJ.M., GarbonellM., et al. (1990): Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus and its relation with hepatitis B virus and HIV - Br. Med. J. 301: 1130–1133.
- A longitudinal study on the incidence and transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV infection among drug users in Amsterdam
European Journal of Epidemiology
Volume 9, Issue 3 , pp 255-262
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Human immunodeficiency virus
- Hepatitis B virus
- Hepatitis C virus
- Substance abuse, intravenous
- Risk factors
- Follow-up studies
- The Netherlands
- Industry Sectors