Assisting teachers and students to reform the mathematics classroom
 Catherine A. Brown,
 Mary Kay Stein,
 Ellice Ann Forman
 … show all 3 hide
Rent the article at a discount
Rent now* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Get AccessAbstract
This study examines the usefulness of selected aspects of Tharp and Gallimore's (1988) theory of assistance as a theoretical framework for describing and analyzing change efforts in a middle school mathematics reform project. Drawing upon Tharp and Gallimore's redefinition of teaching as assisting performance and learning as the result of assisted performance, the social organization of a schoolbased mathematics reform effort in which teacher educators, mathematics teachers, and students both assist and are assisted is analyzed. In addition, one particular classroom assistance activity is presented and analyzed in terms of characteristics of assistance that, according to the theory, should lead to significant learning.
 Andrews, T. E., Barnes, S. Assessment of teaching. In: Houston, W. R. eds. (1990) Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. Macmillan, New York, pp. 569598
 Bauersfeld, H. “Language games” in the mathematics classroom: Their function and their effects. In: Cobb, P., Bauersfeld, H. eds. (1995) The Emergence of Mathematical Meaning: Interaction in Classroom Cultures. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 271291
 Bishop, A. J. (1988) Mathematical Enculturation: A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston
 Brown, C. A., Stein, M. K., and Forman, E. A.: 1993, April, Discourse Development: Chains of Assistance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta.
 Cobb, P., Bauersfeld, H. eds. (1995) The Emergence of Mathematical Meaning: Interaction in Classroom Cultures. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ
 GSCE: The National Criteria for Mathematics. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London
 Dossey, J. A., Mullis, I. V. S., Lindquist, M. M., Chambers, D. L. (1988) The Mathematics Report Card: Are we Measuring up?. Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ
 Eisenhart, M. A. (1988) The ethnographic research tradition and mathematics education research. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 19: pp. 99114
 Epstein, J. L., MacIver, D. J. (1989) Education in the Middle Grades: Overview of a National Survey on Practices and Trends. Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
 Forman, E. A.: in press, ‘Learning mathematics as participation in classroom practice: Implications of sociocultural theory for educational reform’. To appear in L. P. Steffe, P. Nesher, P. Cobb, G. A. Goldin, and B. Greer (eds.), Theories of Mathematical Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
 Forman, E. A. Discourse, intersubjectivity and the development of peer collaboration: A Vygotskian approach. In: Winegar, L. T., Valsiner, J. eds. (1992) Children's Development within Social Contexts: Metatheoretical, Theoretical, and Methodological Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 143159
 Forman, E. A. (1989) The role of peer interaction in the social construction of mathematical knowledge. International Journal of Educational Research 13: pp. 5570
 Forman, E. A., Minick, N., Stone, C. A. eds. (1993) Contexts for Learning: Sociocultural Dynamics in Children's Development. Oxford University Press, New York
 Hamann, J. H.: 1992, April, Contexts and Processes for Effective School Change: Case Study of an External Change Agent. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
 Hoyles, C. and Forman, E. A. (eds): 1995. ‘Processes and products of collaborative problem solving: Some interdisciplinary perspectives’, [Special issue] Cognition and Instruction 13 (4).
 Hughes, M. Children's computation. In: Grieve, R., Hughes, M. eds. (1990) Understanding Children. Blackwell, Cambridge, MA, pp. 121139
 Lane, S.: 1993, ‘The conceptual framework for the development of a mathematics performance assessment instrument’, Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 16–23.
 Lave, J., Wenger, E. (1991) Situated Learning. Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
 Lerman, S. eds. (1994) Cultural Perspectives on the Mathematics Classroom. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands
 Minick, N. J.: 1985, L. S. Vygotsky and Soviet Activity Theory: New Perspectives on the Relationship Between Mind and Society, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University.
 Moll, L. C. eds. (1990) Vygotsky and Education: Instructional Implications and Applications of Sociohistorical Psychology. Cambridge University Press, New York
 Moll, L. C., Greenberg, J. B. Creating zones of possibilities: Combining social contexts for instruction. In: Moll, L. C. eds. (1990) Vygotsky and Education: Instructional Implications and Applications of Sociohistorical Psychology. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 319348
 Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics. The Council, Reston, VA
 Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. The Council, Reston, VA
 Mathematics Counts (The Cockcroft Report). Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London
 Everybody Counts. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC
 Newman, D., Griffin, P., Cole, M. (1989) The Construction Zone: Working for Cognitive Change in School. Cambridge University Press, New York
 Oakes, J. (1985) Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
 Peterson, P., Fennema, E. (1985) Effective teaching, student engagement in classroom activities, and sexrelated differences in learning mathematics. American Educational Research Journal 22: pp. 309335
 Rogoff, B. (1990) Apprenticeship in Thinking: Cognitive Development in Social Context. Oxford University Press, New York
 Romberg, T. A., Carpenter, T. P. Research on teaching and learning mathematics: Two disciplines of scientific inquiry. In: Wittrock, M. C. eds. (1986) Handbook of Research on Teaching. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, pp. 850873
 Silver, E. A., Lane, S. Assessment in the context of mathematics instruction reform: The design of assessment in the QUASAR project. In: Niss, M. eds. (1993) Assessment in mathematics education and its effects. Kluwer, London, pp. 5970
 Silver, E. A. and Stein, M. K.: in press, ‘The QUASAR project: The “Revolution of the Possible” in mathematics instructional reform in urban middle schools’, Urban Education.
 Steffe, L. P., Nesher, P., Cobb, P., Goldin, G. A., and Greer, B. (eds.): in press, Theories of mathematical learning, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
 Stein, M. K. and Brown, C. A.: in press, ‘Teacher learning in a social context: Social interaction as a source of significant teacher change in mathematics’, in E. Fenemma and B. Nelson (eds.), Mathematics Teachers in Transition.
 Stein, M. K., Grover, B. W., and Silver, E. A.: 1991, ‘Changing instructional practice: A conceptual framework for capturing the details’, in R. G. Underhill (ed.), Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. I, October 16–19, 1991, Blacksburg, Virginia, pp. 36–42.
 Stein, M. K., Silver, E. A., and Smith, M. S.: in press, ‘Mathematics reform and teacher development: A community of practice perspective’, in J. Greeno and S. Goldman (eds.), Thinking Practices, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.
 Stodolsky, S. (1988) The Subject Matters: Classroom Activity in Mathematics and Social Studies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
 Tharp, R., Gallimore, R. (1988) Rousing Minds to Life: Teaching, Learning, and Schooling in Social Context. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
 van Oers, B.: in press, ‘Learning mathematics as a meaningful activity’, to appear in L. P. Steffe, P. Nesher, P. Cobb, G. A. Goldin, and B. Greer (eds.), Theories of Mathematical Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
 Vygotsky, L. S. (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA
 Wertsch, J. V. eds. (1985) Culture, Communication, and Cognition: Vygotskian Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, New York
 Title
 Assisting teachers and students to reform the mathematics classroom
 Journal

Educational Studies in Mathematics
Volume 31, Issue 12 , pp 6393
 Cover Date
 19960901
 DOI
 10.1007/BF00143927
 Print ISSN
 00131954
 Online ISSN
 15730816
 Publisher
 Kluwer Academic Publishers
 Additional Links
 Authors

 Catherine A. Brown ^{(1)}
 Mary Kay Stein ^{(1)}
 Ellice Ann Forman ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A.