Landscape Ecology

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 133–142

Some general principles of landscape and regional ecology

  • Richard T. T. Forman

DOI: 10.1007/BF00133027

Cite this article as:
Forman, R.T.T. Landscape Ecol (1995) 10: 133. doi:10.1007/BF00133027


A dozen general principles of landscape and regional ecology are delineated to stimulate their evaluation, refinement, and usage. Brief background material and a few references provide entrées into the subjects. The principles are presented in four groups: landscapes and regions; patches and corridors; mosaics; and applications. Most appear useful in solving a wide range of environmental and societal land-use issues.


aggregate-with-outliersgrain sizeindispensable patternland mosaiclandscape changelandscape ecologymetapopulation dynamicsmosaic sequencepatch-corridor-matrixpatch shapeprincipleregional ecology

Copyright information

© SPB Academic Publishing bv 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard T. T. Forman
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard University, Graduate School of DesignCambridgeUSA