Addicott, J.F., Aho, J.M., Antolin, M.F., Padilla, D.K., Richardson, J.S. and Soluk, D.A. 1987. Ecological neighborhoods: scaling environmental patterns. Oikos 49: 340–346.
Allen, T.F.H. and Starr, T.B. 1982. Hierarchy: perspectives for ecological complexity. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Barnosky, C.W. 1984. Late Miocene vegetational and climatic variations inferred from a pollen record in northwest Wyoming. Science 223: 49–51.
Bennett, R.J. 1979. Spatial time series. Pion, London.
Carpenter, S.R. 1989. Temporal variance in lake communities: blue-green algae and the trophic cascade. Landscape Ecol. 3: 175–184.
Carpenter, S.R. and Kitchell, J.F. 1987. The temporal scale of variance in limnetic primary production. Am. Nat. 129: 417–433.
Dale, V.H., Jager, H.L, Gardner, R.H. and Rosen, A.E. 1988. Using sensitivity and uncertainty analyses to improve predictions of broad-scale forest development. Ecol. Modell. 42: 165–178.
Davis, M.B. and Botkin, D.B. 1985. Sensitivity of cool-temperate forests and their fossil pollen record to rapid temperature change. Quat. Res. 23: 327–340.
Delcourt, H.R. and Delcourt, P.A. 1988. Quaternary landscape ecology: relevant scales in space and time. Landscape Ecol. 2: 23–44.
Delcourt, H.R., Delcourt, P.A. and Webb, T. 1983. Dynamic plant ecology: the spectrum of vegetation change in space and time. Quat. Sci. Rev. 1: 153–175.
Delhomme, J.P. 1978. Kriging in the hydrosciences. Adv. Water Resour. 1: 251–266.
Dickinson, R.E. 1988. Atmospheric systems and global change. In Scales and Global Change, pp. 57–80. Edited by T. Rosswall, R.G. Woodmansee and P.G. Risser. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Dwyer, R.L. and Perez, K.T. 1983. An experimental examination of ecosystem linearization. Am. Nat. 121: 305–323.
Forman, R.T.T. and Godron, M. 1986. Landscape ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Frost, T.M., DeAngelis, D.L., Allen, T.F.H., Bartell, S.M. and Hall, D.J. 1988. Scale in the design and interpretation of aquatic community research. In Complex Interactions in Lake Communities, pp. 229–258. Edited by S.R. Carpenter. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Gardner, R.H., Milne, B.T., Turner, M.G. and O'Neill, R.V. 1987. Neutral models for the analysis of broad-scale landscape pattern. Landscape Ecol. 1: 19–28.
Gardner, R.H., O'Neill, R.V., Turner, M.G. and Dale, V.H. 1989. Quantifying scale-dependent effects of animal movement with simple percolation models. Landscape Ecol. 3: 217–227.
Getis, A. and Franklin, J. 1987. Second-order neighborhood analysis of mapped point patterns. Ecology 68: 473–477.
Gosz, J.R. and Sharpe, P.J.H. 1989. Broad-scale concepts for interactions of climate, topography, and biota at biome transitions. Landscape Ecol. 3: 229–243.
Hall, F.G., Strebel, D.E. and Sellers, P.J. 1988. Linking knowledge among spatial and temporal scales: vegetation, atmosphere, climate and remote sensing. Landscape Ecol. 2: 3–22.
Holling, C.S. (ed.) 1978. Adaptive environmental assessment and management. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Huston, M., DeAngelis, D. and Post, W. 1988. New computer models unify ecological theory. BioScience 38: 682–691.
Jarvis, P.G. and McNaughton, K.G. 1986. Stomatal control of transpiration: Scaling up from leaf to region. Adv. Ecol. Res. 15: 1–49.
King, A.W., DeAngelis, D.L. and Post, W.M. 1988. The seasonal exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere: extrapolation from site-specific models to regional models. ORNL/TM-10570. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Krummel, J.R., Gardner, R.H., Sugihara, G. and O'Neill, R.V. 1987. Landscape patterns in a disturbed environment. Oikos 48: 321–324.
Levasseur, M., Therriault, J.C. and Legendre, L. 1984. Hierarchical control of phytoplankton succession by physical factors. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 19: 211–222.
Livingston, R.J. 1987. Field sampling in estuaries: the relationship of scale to variability. Estuaries 10: 194–207.
Meentemeyer, V. 1978. Macroclimate and lignin control of litter decomposition rates. Ecology 59: 465–472.
Meentemeyer, V. 1984. The geography of organic decomposition rates. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 74: 551–560.
Meentemeyer, V. 1989. Geographical perspectives of space, time and scale. Landscape Ecol. 3: 163–173.
Meentemeyer, V. and Box, E.O. 1987. Scale effects in landscape studies. In Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance, pp. 15–36. Edited by M.G. Turner. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Milne, B.T. 1988. Measuring the fractal dimension of landscapes. Appl. Math. Comput. 27: 67–79.
Neilson, R.P. and Wulstein, L.H. 1983. Biogeography of two southwest American oaks in relation to atmospheric dynamics. J. Biogeogr. 10: 275–297.
Noy-Meir, I. 1971. Multivariate analysis of desert vegetation. II. Qualitative-quantitative partition of heterogeneity. Vegetatio 29: 179–190.
O'Neill, R.V., DeAngelis, D.L., Waide, J.B. and Allen, T.F.H. 1986. A hierarchical concept of ecosystems. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
O'Neill, R.V., Milne, B.T., Turner, M.G. and Gardner, R.H. 1988. Resource utilization scales and landscape pattern. Landscape Ecol. 2: 63–69.
O'Neill, R.V., Johnson, A.R. and King, A.W. 1989. A hierarchical framework for the analysis of scale. Landscape Ecol. 3: 193–205.
Risser, P.G. 1986. Spatial and temporal variability of biospheric and geospheric processes: research needed to determine interactions with global environmental change. The ICSU Press, Paris.
Risser, P.G., Forman, R.T.T. and Karr, J.R. 1984. Landscape ecology: directions and approaches. Special Publications No. 2. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign.
Romme, W.H. 1982. Fire and landscape diversity in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. Ecol. Monogr. 52: 199–221.
Romme, W.H. and Knight, D.H. 1982. Landscape diversity: the concept applied to Yellowstone Park. BioScience 32: 664–670.
Rosen, R. 1989. Similitude, similarity, and scaling. Landscape Ecol. 3: 207–216.
Rosswall, T., Woodmansee, R.G. and Risser, P.G. (eds.) 1988. Scales and global change. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Sollins, P., Spycher, G. and Topik, C. 1983. Processes of soil organic-matter accretion at a mudflow chronosequence, Mt. Shast, California. Ecology 64: 1273–1282.
Steele, J.H. (ed.) 1978. Spatial pattern in plankton communities. Plenum Press, New York.
Steele, J.H. 1989. The ocean ‘landscape.’ Landscape Ecol. 3: 185–192.
Turner, M.G. (ed.) 1987. Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Turner, M.G. 1989. Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20: 171–197.
Turner, M.G., O'Neill, R.V., Gardner, R.H. and Milne, B.T. 1989. Effects of changing spatial scale on the analysis of landscape pattern. Landscape Ecol. 3: 153–162.
Turner, S.J., O'Neill, R.V., Conley, W., Conley, M.R. and Humphries, H.C. Pattern and scale: statistics for landscape ecology. In Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Edited by M.G. Turner and R.H. Gardner. Springer-Verlag, New York (in press).
van der Heijde, P.K.M. 1988. Spatial and temporal scales in groundwater modelling. In Scales and Global Change, pp. 195–224. Edited by T. Rosswall, R.G. Woodmansee and P.G. Risser. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Webster, R. 1985. Quantitative spatial analysis of soil in the field. In Advances in Soil Science, Vol. 3. pp. 2–70. Edited by B.A. Stewart. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Wiens, J.A. Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology (in press).
Woodcock, C.E. and Strahler, A.H. 1987. The factor of scale in remote sensing. Remote Sensing Environ. 21: 311–332.