The global burden of trachomatous visual impairment: II. assessing burden
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
This paper builds on results of a previous paper on the prevalence of trachomatous visual impairment as the foundation for assessing the global burden of trachomatous blindness and low vision: approximately 2.9 million cases of trachomatous blindness and 3.8 million low visioned corresponding to a global prevalence of trachomatous visual impairment equal to 1.3/1,000 in 1990 was estimated. For each visually impaired person, the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years lived in a handicapped state are added to yield a single measure of disease burden called handicap adjusted life years (HALYs). Age, gender and visual acuity group specific HALYs are multiplied by the prevalence of trachomatous visual impairment to yield an estimate of the global burden of trachoma visual impairment equal to 80 million HALYs. Analysis of the distribution of the global burden by age, gender, visual acuity and region provide direction for trachoma research and programme priorities. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the burden estimates of trachomatous visual impairment may vary from as low as 15 million to as high as 500 million HALYs. Given this degree of variability, burden comparisons with other blinding and non-blinding conditions for the purposes of identifying health sector priorities may be misleading.
- Sullivan, DF (1966) Conceptual problems in developing an index of health. US Public Health Service Publication Series No. 1000. National Center for Health Statistics, Bethesda MD
- Sullivan, DF (1976) A single index of mortality and morbidity. Health Reports 86: pp. 347-54
- World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health. Oxford University Press, New York
- Murray, C (1994) Quantifying the burden of disease: the technical basis for Disability Adjusted Life Years. Bull World Health Organ 72: pp. 429-45
- Evans, TG, Ranson, MK (1996) The global burden of trachomatous visual impairment: 1. Assessing prevalence. Int Ophthalmol 19: pp. 261-270
- Thylefors B, Evans TG, Ranson MK. Blindness as a risk factor: assessing the health impact of visual impairment. In: Murray CJL, Lopez A (eds) The Global Burden of Disease (forthcoming).
- Evans TG, Ranson MK. The burden of trachomatous visual impairment. Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Working Paper Series, Cambridge (in preparation).
- The prevention of blindness. WHO, Geneva
- Drummond, MF, Stoddard, GL, Torrance, GW (1987) Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. Oxford Medical Publications, New York
- Kirkwood, B, Smith, P, Marshall, T, Prost, A (1983) Relationships between mortality, visual acuity and microfilarial load in the area of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77: pp. 862-8
- Chandran, PKG, Lane, T, Flynn, CT (1991) Patient and technique survival for blind and sighted diabetics on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a ten-year analysis. Int J Artif Organs 14: pp. 262-8
- Laforge RG, Spector WD, Sternberg J. The relationship of vision and hearing impairment to one-year mortality and functional decline. Vision and Hearing Impairment February 1992: 126-48.
- Taylor, HR, Katala, S, Muñoz, B, Turner, V (1991) Increase in mortality associated with blindness in rural Africa. Bull WHO 69: pp. 335-8
- Rogot, E, Goldberg, ID, Goldstein, H (1966) Survivorship and causes of death among the blind. J Chron Dis 19: pp. 179-97
- Coale, AJ, Goa, G (1989) Revised regional model life tables at very low levels of mortality. Population Index 55: pp. 613-43
- Evans TG. The socio-economic consequences of blinding onchocerciasis in West Africa. Bull WHO (forthcoming).
- Evans, TG (1989) The impact of permanent disability on rural households: river blindness in Guinea. IDS Bulletin 20: pp. 41-8
- Drummond, MF, Stoddart, G, Torrance, GW (1980) Principles of Economic Appraisal in Health Care. Oxford University Press, Oxford
- Kirkwood, BR (1988) Essentials of Medical Statistics. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford
- Freeman, J, Hutchison, CB (1980) Prevalence, incidence and duration. Am J Epidemiol 112: pp. 707
- Courtright PJ, Sheppard B, Mihkail B, Manka R, Dawson CR. Adult-associated risk factors for cicatricial trachoma in Egyptian women. Abstract ARVO 1988 May.
- Kupka, K, Nizetic, B, Reinhards, J (1968) Sampling studies on the epidemiology and control of trachoma in southern Morocco. Bull World Health Organ 39: pp. 547-66
- Turner, VM, West, SK, Muñoz, B, Katala, SJ, Taylor, HR, Halsey, N, Mmbaga, BBO (1993) Risk factors for trichiasis in women in Kongwa, Tanzania: a case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 22: pp. 341-7
- The global burden of trachomatous visual impairment: II. assessing burden
Volume 19, Issue 5 , pp 271-280
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- burden of disease
- low vision
- visual impairment
- Industry Sectors