For Stalin's comments on the “stratum” of the intelligentsia, see de Huszar, George B., The Intellectuals: A Controversial Portrait (Glencoe, Ill.: 1960), pp. 407–410.
In the summer of 1949, the Czech Communist Party's Central Committee founded a Higher School for Political and Economic Sciences (VŠPHV) that immediately began concentrated training of elites needed urgently by the emerging socialist state. Social science disciplines had been carefully purged of individuals deemed less than loyal to the party in February 1948. See my “Creating the Socialist Elite: Communist Higher Education Policies in the Czech Lands, East Germany, and Poland, 1945–1954”, ch. 4, unpublished PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1994.
Archiwum Akt Nowych Warsaw (AAN) KC PPR 295/XVII/57/20. In November 1947 the PPR delegate in Warsaw for university admissions wrote to the Central Committee that he could not tell precisely how many candidates were party members, because “many members have not revealed their affiliation”. If they belonged to another “democratic organisation”, they often listed it alone. AAN KC PPR/295/XVII/61/429, 429a. In some places communist functionaries had not yet cast aside the conspiratorial practices they learned during German occupation. AAN KC PPR 295/XVII/58/79; AAN KC PPR 295/XVII/38, 46.
“Rewolucja ŀagodna”, Odrodzenie, 10–12, 1945, cited in Hübner, Piotr, Polityka naukowa w Polsce w latach 1944–1953 Geneza systemu (Warsaw: Książka, 1992), p. 67.
GomułkaWładysław, Ku nowej Polsce: sprawozdanie polityczne i przemowienia wygloszone na I Zjezdzie PPR (Łódź: Spóldzielnia Wydawn, 1946), p. 139.
Letter of Ministry of Higher Education, 15 January, 1952, in Archiwum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonńkiego (UAJ) S III 251. In 1951 it was anticipated that 127 lectures and 448 assistants were needed to teach the foundations of Marxism-Leninism and political economy, but only 84 lecturers and 82 assistants were available; 21 Soviet scholars were sent to Poland to assist in Marxist-Leninist training. Hübner, P., Polityka naukowa, op. cit., p. 665.
The discussions in November 1949 between leading PZPR functionaries are recorded in AAN KC PZPR 237/XVI/2/11-13. The Politburo meeting was on 17 January, 1950. AAN BP KC PZPR, t. 9/54-55, protocol 27.
Hübner, P., Polityka naukowa, op. cit., pp. 100–101. The “Democractic Club” included about 30 left-leaning intellectuals.
Schaff claims that Kotarbiński was a frequent visitor to his father's house in Lwów. Pora na spowiedź (Warsaw, 1993), p. 41. But in July 1948 Kotarbiński had opposed Schaff's receiving a chair in philosophy at Warsaw, insisting he first habilitate and spend at least two years in the West to become acquainted with formal logic. AAN MO/291/69. In Schaff's view, his Moscow doctorate was equivalent to a Polish habilitation. Pora, op. cit. pp. 31–32. But Kotarbiński did believe that Schaff could immediately take up a chair “specially dedicated to the cultivation of Marxism...”.
Interview of 15 July, 1992.
AAN KC PZPR 237/XVI/29/1.
AAN ANS 6/6/22.
Letter from Schaff to Zambrowski, 11 August, 1950. AAN KC PZPR 237/V/48/15-16.
AAN ANS 6/6/22.
The second group included historians Stanislaw Arnold (University of Warsaw), Tadeusz Daniszewski (director of Institute of the History of the Party at Central Committee of the PZPR), Leon Grosfeld (professor at IKKN specialising in economic history), N. Gąsiorowska (professor at Łódź University), H. Jabłoński (vice-minister of education), and Żanna Kormanowa (director of the IKKN history factulty). AAN BP KC PZPR t. 13/197-198 Secretariat of Central Committee Organisation Bureau (B.O.) meeting of 20 June, 1950. See also Hübner, P., Polityka naukowa, op. cit. p. 652.
AAN BP KC PZPR p. 3 t. 13/186e.
Ibid., t. 18/43, protocol no. 1, 12 January, 1951.
AAN BP KC PZPR p. 4 t. 20/203-204. The change was supposedly based upon Soviet experience. In a letter of May 1951, Schaff wrote that the faculties would “hamper the work of the departments”. AAN AS 6/2/21.
AAN BP KC PZPR t. 25 (unnumbered), protocol no. 169, 6 May, 1952. During the academic year 1953–54, Kołakowski was criticised for not providing his graduate students with “continuous, systematic political supervision [opieka]”. AAN ANS 5/106/87.
AAN BP KC PZPR t. 25 (unnumbered), protocol no. 182, August, 1952. AAN BP KC PZPR t. 40/181, protocol no. 25, 3 September, 1954.
Ibid., p. 3 t. 14/77.
Ibid., p. 3 t. 13 186a-c.
Hübner, P., Polityka naukowa, op. cit., pp. 652–653.
Sprawozdanie z pracy Instytutu w roku 1950/51r., AAN KC PZPR 237/XVI/69/13.
AAN BP KC PZPR t. 33 (unnumbered) protocol no. 254, 31 July, 1953. More provision was also made for candidates without formal qualifications. From the start, those with only high school diplomas could enter graduate studies at IKKN, but now a six-month preparatory course in foundations of Marxism-Leninism, political economy, topics in Polish history and Russian language was provided for them. Though expected to train future college teachers, such persons were never entirely accepted by the Polish academic community as qualified. Ibid., protocol no. 227, 11 April, 1953.
Letter from IKKN to R. Zambrowski, 28 October, 1950. AAN BP KC PZPR p. 3 t. 14/189.
O pogladach filozoficznych i spoleczno-politycznych Tadeusza Kotarbinskiego (Warsaw, 1951). Cited in Hübner, P., Polityka naukowa, op. cit., pp. 653–654. For doctoral theses produced at the IKKN against the philosophers Kotarbińskiego, Twardowski and Ajdukiewicz; the sociologists Znaniecki and Chalasiński; and “Revisionism of the PPS as an ideology of a bourgeois agency, the role of various reactionary views in Poland [neothomism, phenomenology, neopositivism]...”, see Sprawozdanie z pracy Instytutu w roku 1950/51r., AAN KC PZPR 237/XVI/69/10–12.
Schaff, Adam, “Nauki Filozoficzne”, Suchodolski, Bogdan et al. (eds), Dziesieć lat rozwoju nauki w Polsce Ludowej (Warsaw, 1956), pp. 97–98.
AAN KC PZPR 237/XVI/69/16; AAN BP KC PZPR p. 3 t. 14/77.
AAN ANS 6/2/147. In a report of 1953 Schaff described the students “of the first period of the existence of IKKN [as] mostly having some experience in political battle”. AAN ANS 24/15/78.
Ibid., 6/2/151, 162–163.
This request was approved. Ibid., 6/2/182–183.
AAN BP KC PZPR p. 3 t. 13/188.
AAN BP KC p. 3 t. 13/271.
AAN ANS 6/6/22.
AAN KC PZPR 237/V/48/23–24.
Ibid., 237/V/48/25–27. Nekrasov could not be used as effectively as Schaff hoped because he had no experience of the problems of Polish industrial economics, nor a Polish partner to explain them to him. AAN ANS 6/12/17. For further reports on catastrophic shortages in PZPR economics teaching 1951–53, see ibid., 6/2/16, 92, 164.
AAN KC PZPR 237/V/48/35.
Ibid., 237/V/49/4. Later he increased this request to seven. AAN ANS 6/6/40. Teachers at IKKN were much overworked: they taught 6–8 hours daily whereas their Soviet counterparts taught for only two. AAN ANS 6/2/110.
AAN KC PZPR 237/V/48/35. Polish communists attempted to make extensive use of “bourgeois” professors in ideologically sensitive areas. See, e.g., the historian Celina Bobińska's complaint at the meeting of the PZPR cell of Jagiellonian University, 12 November, 1951, that the party organisation “did not control the situation” at the department of journalism, and non-party professors did not wish to teach there. Archiwum Państwowy w Krakowie, KW PZPR 62/XV/5/28. In a project to reform Polish studies drawn up in 1950, Stefan Zolkiewski planned much use of the skills of non-party professors. AAN KC PZPR 237/XVI/43/1–13.
AAN BP KC PZPR t. 33 (unnumbered), protocol no. 269; 21 November, 1953; AAN ANS 6/12/172. On Brus, see AAN BP KC PZPR t. 33 (unnumbered), protocol no. 227, 11 April, 1953.
AAN BP KC PZPR t. 33 (unnumbered), protocol no. 213, 9 February, 1953.
Ibid., protocol no. 248, 2 July, 1953; AAN ANS 6/2/197.
AAN BP KC PZPR 237/XVI/69/7. Report by Jadwiga Siekierska. Kroński was the only teacher in the philosophy faculty with a negative assessment. AAN ANS 5/106/17. Kroński, Poland's leading Hegelian, “philosophised incessantly and with his whole body... [and was] antitotalitarian to the core... “. Milosz, Czeslaw, Native Realm: A Search for Self-definition (Berkeley, 1981), pp. 266, 270, 290. See also Walicki, Andrzej, Spotkania z Miloszem (London, 1985), pp. 47–71; and the reminiscences of Assorodobraj, N., Baczko, B., Beylin, P. and Kolakowski, L. in Kroński, T., Rozwažania wokót Hegla (Warsaw, 1960), pp. 475–499.
AAN ANS 5/106/92.
In a letter of 21 December, 1953, Schaff promised to cancel the student status of all who had entered IKKN in 1950 and had still not graduated; they would be sent to work. Ibid., 6/2/225.
AAN BP KC PZPR 237/XVI/69/7.
AAN ANS 5/12/8.
Schaff's connection at the secret police was Julia Brystigerowa. Interiew with Tadeusz Kowalik, 27 February, 1996.
AAN ANS 5/106/100.
On Schaff's role in closing the circle in 1962, and criticism of a paper he delivered, see Walicki, A., Spotkania, op. cit., p. 65; and Jedlicki, Witold, Klub Krzyzwego Kola (Paris, 1963), pp. 157–163.
See Ajdukiewicz, K., “W sprawie artykulu prof. A. Schaffa o moich pogladach filozoficznych”, Myśl Filozoficzna, 2 (1953); Ajdukiewicz, K., “Logika, jej zadania i potrzeby w Polsce wspólczesnej”, ibid., 1–2 (1951); Kotarbiński, T., “Humanistyka bez hipostaz”, ibid., 1 (3) (1952), and “Odpowiedź”, ibid., 2 (4) 1952. This concession is more astounding since Ajdukiewicz had publically described the “contribution” [dorobek] of Marxist philosophy as “very slight”, on 3 July, 1950, at a meeting of the social sciences and humanities section of the First Polish Congress of Science; cited in Hübner, P., Polityka naukowa, op. cit., p. 799.
AAN ANS 6/2/239.
The “Library” was started by the party leadership in January 1951, partly to employ philosophers who had lost work; its statement of approval specified an editorial board “from Marxist philosophical cadres, but with broad participation of non-party professors”. In the party command structure, direction was given to the faculty of philosophy of the IKKN. “The translations should in every case in which this is possible include Marxist introductions drawn from Soviet literature, or independently drafted.” AAN BP KC PZPR p. 4 t. 18/85.
Walicki, A., Spotkania, op. cit., p. 42. Herbert, known for a particularly uncompromising attitude towards the regime, lived in great poverty during the Stalinist years.
On S. Zólkiewski's role in providing work for W. Tatarkiewicz and K. Górski, see Nowacki, Witold, Notatki autobiograficzne (Warsaw, 1985), pp. 122–123.
Norman Davies has remarked on the “heavy burden of guilt” borne by the Polish “careerists”, which causes them to “temper the severity of their regime, to fudge, and delay and deliberately forget, to interpret their orders in the mildest from possible”. Heart of Europe: A Short History of Poland (Oxford, 1986), p. 350.
Hübner, Piotr, Nauka polska po II wojnie swiatowej: idee i instytucje (Warsaw, 1987), p. 350.
AAN KC PZPR 237/XVI/69/20.
Żółkiewski planned in 1950 to close Polish philology at all but three universities for six years, during which old professors would gradually be “removed” and young PZPR cadres trained to replace them. The Institute of Literary Studies was not to provide refuge for the persecuted, but to train the new elite. That these plans were unrealised had more to do with the party's weakness and academics' resistance than with the restraint of Żółkiewski. Ibid., 237/XVI/43/1–13.
AAN ANS 24/15/66-68.
Ibid., 6/2/223. Professor V.S. Aleksandrov “consulted” the department of history of USSR at INS in 1954; on his departure the PZPR leadership decided to ask the CPSU for a replacement. AAN BP KC PZPR t. 47/163, protocol no. 50, 22 March, 1955. That year the Soviet historians Pankratova and Khrenov visited Warsaw for two weeks, and lectured at INS and Warsaw University. AAN ANS 6/2/233. In August, the Soviet “consultant” Boldyrev helped set up a department of pedagogy at INS. An additional “consultant” was requested for 1956, when the course began. AAN BP KC PZPR t. 40/181, protocol no. 25, 3 September, 1954. AAN BP KC PZPR t. 40/205, protocol no. 30, 5 October, 1954.
AAN ANS 6/2/219.
Interview with Tadeusz Kowalik, 27 February, 1996. On trips of ANS students and graduates to Moscow: AAN BP KC PZPR t. 33 (unnumbered), protocol no. 227, 11 April 1953; ibid., t. 40/152, protocol no. 20, 3 August, 1954; ibid., t. 47/229, protocol no. 69, 19 August, 1955.
AAN ANS 6/2/245.
ZaitsevaM.I., “Vstrecha s polskimi filosofami”, Voprosy Filosofii, 6 (1953), pp. 219–221.
To make appearances complete, the trip would include Kotarbiński, Ajdukiewicz, Ossowski and Chałasiński, besides the communists Kołakowski, Baczko, Hochfeld, Assorodobraj and Schaff. AAN ANS 6/2/142.
Letter from Sekretariat to Schaff of 22 May, 1954. Ibid., 6/4/8. For the decision: AAN BP KC PZPR, t. 40/113, protocol no. 11, 18 May, 1954.
AAN ANS 5/12/1; 6/3/20, 32.
Report of 22 February 1955. Ibid., 5/12/6.
Report on the work of the department of the history of philosophy for the period September 1954 to January 1955. Ibid., 5/106/95.
AAN BP KC PZPR t. 33/184.
These were the departments of political economy, dialectical and historical materialism, history of philosophy, history of Poland, and general history. AAN ANS 6/3/68.
The traditions of “logical and methodological research” of the Lwów-Warsaw school could be continued. WolenskiJan, “Philosophy Inside Communism: The Case of Poland”, Studies in Soviet Thought, 43, (1992), pp. 98–100. The sociologists Ossowski and Chałasiński managed to continue previously existing Polish schools. In 1958 St. Ossowski's student Stefan Nowak was already defending a doctoral thesis on value changes across generations, a study without precedent in Eastern Europe. See Coleman, James S., in “In Memorium Stefan Nowak”, ISA Bulletin, 51 (1989), cited in Dziedzictwo Stefana Nowaka (Warsaw, 1992), p. 218. Chałasiński's best known students included F. Jakubczak, J. Kadzielski, A. Kłoskowska, Z. Komorowski, J. Piotrkowski, W. Piotrkowski, and K. Żygułski. Sŕodka, A. (ed.), Biogramy uczonych polskich, Pt 1, Vol. I (Warsaw, 1983), p. 187.
AAN KCPZPR 237/XVI/224/24-29. The reports on ideological training from Gliwice, Wrocław and Warsaw were similarly gloomy. AAN KC PZPR 237/XVI/227/12-17, 219/29-33, 182/161-165.
FijałkowskaBarbara, Polityka i twócy (1948–1959) (Warsaw: PWN, 1985), pp. 342–346.
“Notatka w sprawie projektu instrukcji KC o szkoleniu ideologicznym nauczycieli i pracowników naukowych szkół wyższych w roku 1954/55”, 2 September, 1954, AAN KC PZPR 237/XVI/186/1-2. In 1956 Toruń still had no director of political economy. The district PZPR office to Warsaw requested a director, because the “department was not able fully to influence youth ideologically ...”. The request was placed ad acta with the “notation” that “we cannot give them a director for the department of political economy”. Ibid., 237/XVI/217/8.
Report of 4 September, 1954. Ibid., 237/XVI/186/7.
Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. III (Oxford, 1978), p. 173.
Interview of 15 July, 1992.
MołdawaTadeusz, Ludzie Władzy 1944–1991 (Warsaw: Wydaw. Naukowe PWN, 1991), pp. 162–163, 235, 362, 443, 446.
Walicki, A., Spotkania, op. cit., p. 65.
One example of such reunification was the philosophical institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, where, in the early 1960s, former INS members Bronisław Baczko, Leszek Kołakowski, Henryk Hinz, Anka Śladkowska-Hochfeldowa worked side by side with Andrzej Walicki, Barbara Skarga, Zygmunt Ogonowski and Lech Szczucki. Ibid., p. 68.
Interview of 15 July, 1992.