Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade III
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- Gram, I.T., Macaluso, M., Churchill, J. et al. Cancer Causes Control (1992) 3: 231. doi:10.1007/BF00124256
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The temporal relationship between cervical infection with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or human papillomavirus (HPV) and the incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade three (CIN III) was examined in a cohort of 43,016 Norwegian women. From 1980 to 1989, a cervico-vaginal infection from TV and HPV was diagnosed cytologically in 988 and 678 women, respectively. During the 181,240 person-years of observation, 440 cases of CIN III/cervical cancer developed. The age-adjusted incidence rates (IR) of CIN III were 225 per 100,000 person-years among women with no cytologic evidence of infection,459 among women with TV infection, and 729 among women with HPV infection. A multiple regression model yielded a relative rate (RR) of CIN III of 2.1 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]=1.3–3.4) among women with TV infection and 3.5 (CI=1.9–6.6) among women with HPV infection, compared with women with neither infection. As CIN can be misclassified as HPV infection, the entry Pap-smears of 10 women with HPV infection who later developed CIN III were re-examined. Excluding the four discordant cases with the corresponding person-years decreased the RR of CIN III to 2.1 (CI=0.9–4.8). Our report demonstrates the limitations of studies that rely only on cytologic detection of HPV infection. Nevertheless, the results support the hypothesis that HPV is a causal factor for CIN III lesions, and also display an association between TV infection and cervical neoplasia.