Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 231–236

Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade III

  • Inger Torhild Gram
  • Maurizio Macaluso
  • Jeanetta Churchill
  • Helge Stalsberg
Research Papers

DOI: 10.1007/BF00124256

Cite this article as:
Gram, I.T., Macaluso, M., Churchill, J. et al. Cancer Causes Control (1992) 3: 231. doi:10.1007/BF00124256

Abstract

The temporal relationship between cervical infection with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or human papillomavirus (HPV) and the incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade three (CIN III) was examined in a cohort of 43,016 Norwegian women. From 1980 to 1989, a cervico-vaginal infection from TV and HPV was diagnosed cytologically in 988 and 678 women, respectively. During the 181,240 person-years of observation, 440 cases of CIN III/cervical cancer developed. The age-adjusted incidence rates (IR) of CIN III were 225 per 100,000 person-years among women with no cytologic evidence of infection,459 among women with TV infection, and 729 among women with HPV infection. A multiple regression model yielded a relative rate (RR) of CIN III of 2.1 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]=1.3–3.4) among women with TV infection and 3.5 (CI=1.9–6.6) among women with HPV infection, compared with women with neither infection. As CIN can be misclassified as HPV infection, the entry Pap-smears of 10 women with HPV infection who later developed CIN III were re-examined. Excluding the four discordant cases with the corresponding person-years decreased the RR of CIN III to 2.1 (CI=0.9–4.8). Our report demonstrates the limitations of studies that rely only on cytologic detection of HPV infection. Nevertheless, the results support the hypothesis that HPV is a causal factor for CIN III lesions, and also display an association between TV infection and cervical neoplasia.

Key words

Cervical cancer follow-up studies Norway papillomavirus Trichomonas vaginalis 

Copyright information

© Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inger Torhild Gram
    • 1
  • Maurizio Macaluso
    • 2
  • Jeanetta Churchill
    • 2
  • Helge Stalsberg
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Community MedicineUniversity of TromsöNorway
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of AlabamaBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Medical BiologyUniversity of TromsöNorway
  4. 4.Institute of Community MedicineUniversity of TromsöTromsöNorway