Effect of various additives and temperature on some properties of an apatitic calcium phosphate cement

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The effect of additives and temperature on setting time, swelling time and compressive strength of a previously developed apatitic calcium phosphate cement was investigated. Setting was faster at body temperature than at room temperature. Early contact with aqueous solutions resembling blood and other body fluids had no effect. Deliberate additions of soluble carbonates, pyrophosphate or magnesium salts to the cement powder retarded or even inhibited setting. However, additions of calcium pyrophosphate, β-tertiary calcium phosphate or sintered hydroxyapatite to the cement powder in amounts up to 10% had no effect on the cement properties. Several organic substances were used as additives. They all retarded the setting and decreased the strength of the cement considerably.