Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 59–82

An observational study of the structure of the nocturnal urban boundary layer

  • I. Uno
  • S. Wakamatsu
  • H. Ueda
  • A. Nakamura
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF00120815

Cite this article as:
Uno, I., Wakamatsu, S., Ueda, H. et al. Boundary-Layer Meteorol (1988) 45: 59. doi:10.1007/BF00120815

Abstract

The formation mechanism of the nocturnal urban boundary layer (UBL), especially in the winter nighttime, was investigated based on the extensive field observations conducted during November 1984 in Sapporo, Japan. A strong, elevated inversion formed over the Sapporo urban area and the inversion base height was approximately twice the average building height. Velocity fluctuations Σu, Σw and Reynolds stress % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0aaaeaaca% WG1bWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIXaaaaGGaaOGae8hiaaIaam4DamaaCaaa% leqabaGaaGymaaaaaaaaaa!3A9C!\[\overline {u^1 w^1 } \] had nearly uniform profiles within the nocturnal UBL and decreased with height above the UBL. On the other hand, temperature fluctuations Σt, and heat fluxes % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0aaaeaaca% WG1bWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIXaaaaGGaaOGae8hiaaIaeqiUde3aaWba% aSqabeaacaaIXaaaaaaaaaa!3B56!\[\overline {u^1 \theta ^1 } \] and % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0aaaeaaca% WG3bWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIXaaaaGGaaOGae8hiaaIaeqiUde3aaWba% aSqabeaacaaIXaaaaaaaaaa!3B58!\[\overline {w^1 \theta ^1 } \] had peaks at the inversion base and small values within the nocturnal UBL. The turbulent kinetic energy budget showed that the turbulent transport term and shear generation from urban canopy elements are important in the nocturnal UBL development; the role of the buoyancy term is small. The turbulence data analysis and application of a simple advective model showed that the mechanism of UBL formation may be controlled by the downward transport of sensible heat from the elevated inversion caused by mechanically-generated turbulence.

Nomenclature

g

accelaration due to gravity, m s-2

k

turbulent kinetic energy, m2 s-1

Km

eddy viscosity, m2 s-1

L

Monin-Obukhov lenght, m

p

pressure, Kg m-2

U, V, W

mean wind speed in the downwind, crosswind, and vertical directions, respectively, m s-1

u1, w1

wind speed fluctuation in the downwind and vertical direction, respectively, m s-1

u1

friction velocity, m s-1

% MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0aaaeaaca% WG1bWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIXaaaaGGaaOGae8hiaaIaam4DamaaCaaa% leqabaGaaGymaaaaaaaaaa!3A9C!\[\overline {u^1 w^1 } \]

momentum flux, m2s-2

% MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0aaaeaaca% WG1bWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIXaaaaGGaaOGae8hiaaIaam4DamaaCaaa% leqabaGaaGymaaaaaaaaaa!3A9C!\[\overline {u^1 \theta^1 } \]

sensible heat flux, m2s-1°C

WD

wind direction, deg

WS

wind speed, m s-1

z

altitude, m

Zh

inversion base height, m

Zj

wind maximum height, m

Zt

inversion top height, m

ΔTu-r

heat island intensity, °C

γ

temperature lapse rate at rural site, °C m-1

ε

energy dissipation rate, m2s-3

θ1

Potential temperature fluctuation, °C

θ*

scaling temperature, (=-% MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0aaaeaaca% WG1bWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIXaaaaGGaaOGae8hiaaIaeqiUde3aaWba% aSqabeaacaaIXaaaaaaaaaa!3B56!\[\overline {u^1 \theta ^1 } \]/u*) °C

θ

mean potential temperature fluctuation, K

ρ

density of air, Kgm-3

K

von Kármán constant (=0.4)

σu, σv, σw

standard deviation of wind speed in the downwind, crosswind, and vertical directions, respectively, m s-1

σ

standard diviation of temperature, °C

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Uno
    • 1
  • S. Wakamatsu
    • 1
  • H. Ueda
    • 1
  • A. Nakamura
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute for Environmental StudiesIbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan