, Volume 51, Issue 1-2, pp 179-197

Air flow over and through a forest edge: A steady-state numerical simulation

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Abstract

A numerical model was developed to simulate neutrally stratified air flow over and through a forest edge. The spatially averaged equations for turbulent flow in vegetation canopies are derived as the governing equations. A first-order closure scheme with the capability of accounting for the bulk momentum transport process in vegetation canopies is employed. The averaged equations are solved numerically by a fractional time-step method and successive relaxation. The asymptotic solution in time is regarded as the steady-state solution. Comparisons of model output to the field measurements of Raynor (1971) indicate that the model provides a realistic mean flow.

Momentum balance computations show that the pressure gradient induced by the wind blowing against the forest edge is significant and has the same order of magnitude as the drag force in the edge region. The edge effect involves the generation of drag forces, the appearance of a large pressure gradient, the upward deflection of mean flow and the transport of momentum into the edge of the canopy.