, Volume 4, Issue 5, pp 503-508

Formulation and setting times of some calcium orthophosphate cements: a pilot study

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Calcium orthophosphates which either can be formed by precipitation at room or body temperatures or by reactions at higher temperatures have been reviewed. Most formulations of cements contain at least one or more acidic components and one or more basic components which react when the powder is mixed with water. Several combinations of reactants are possible in the systems of calcium phosphates and even combinations with calcium phosphates containing sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, carbonate or chloride are thought to be useful. Furthermore, other compounds can be added as accelerators or retarders of the setting reaction or as promoters of bone ingrowth. In this study, over 100 formulations have been tested on their ability to set upon mixing with water. The initial and final setting times were measured with Gilmore needles.