Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 217–221

Cigarette smoking and liver cancer among US veterans

  • Authors
  • Ann W. Hsing
  • Joseph K. McLaughlin
  • Zdenek Hrubec
  • William J. Blot
  • Joseph F. FraumeniJr
Research Papers

DOI: 10.1007/BF00117473

Cite this article as:
Hsing, A.W., McLaughlin, J.K., Hrubec, Z. et al. Cancer Causes Control (1990) 1: 217. doi:10.1007/BF00117473

The relationship of tobacco use with risk of primary liver cancer was investigated using data from a 26-year mortality follow-up of nearly 250,000 US veterans, mostly from World War I. Significantly increased risks for liver cancer (289 deaths) were associated with most forms of tobacco use, including pipe and cigar smoking. Elevated relative tisks (RRs) were seen for current cigarette smokers (RR=2.4; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.6–3.5) and former cigarette smokers (RR=1.9, 1.2–2.9). A strong dose-response relationship (P<0.001) was found for cigarette smoking, with smokers of 40 or more cigarettes per day having almost a fourfold risk (RR=3.8, 1.9–8.0). Risks were also found to increase significantly with years of cigarette use and with earlier age at the start of cigarette smoking. These results are consistent with those of other cohort and case-control studies, suggesting that cigarette smoking may be related to the risk of liver cancer.

Key words

Cigarettesliver cancertobaccoveterans

Copyright information

© Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd 1990