Muir C, Waterhouse J, Mack T, Powell J, Whelan S, eds. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Vol. V. Lyon, France; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1987; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 88: 882–3.
Kelsey JL, Horn-Ross PL. Introduction: magnitude of the problem and descriptive epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev 1993 15: 7–16.
McMichael AJ, Giles GG. Cancer in migrants in Australia: extending descriptive epidemiological data. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 751–6.
Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 1975; 15: 617–31.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ. Dietary fat and cancer: another view. Cancer Causes Control 1990; 1: 103–9.
Prentice RL, Kakar F, Hursting S, Sheppard L, Klein R, Kushi LH. Aspects of the rationale for the Women's Health Trial. JCI 1988; 80: 8022–14.
Stephen AM, Wald NJ. Trends in individual consumption of dietary fat in the United States, 1920–1984. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52: 457–69.
Hirayama T. Epidemiology of breast cancer with special reference to diet. Prev Med 1978; 7: 173–95.
Aoki K, Kurihara M, Hayakawa N, et al. Death Rates for Malignant Neoplasms for Selected Sites by Age Group in 33 Countries. Nagoya, Japan: University of Nagoya Coop Press, International Union Against Cancer, 1992.
Phillips RL, Garfinkel L, Kuzma JL, Beeson WL, Lotz T, Brin B. Mortality among California Seventh-day Adventists. JNCI 1980; 65: 1097–107.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 1664–72.
Kinlen LJ. Meat and fat consumption and cancer mortality: a study of strict religious orders in Britain, Lancet 1982; i: 946–9.
Albanes D. Total calories, body weight, and tumor incidence in mice. Cancer Res 1987; 47: 1987–92.
Freedman LS, Clifford C, Messina M. Analysis of dietary fat, calories, body weight and the development of mammary tumor in rats and mice: a review. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 5710–9.
Hirohata T, Shigematsu T, Nomura AM, Nomura Y, Horie A, Hirobata I. Occurrence of breast cancer in relation to diet and reproductive history: a case-control study in Fukuoka, Japan. NCI Monogr 1985; 69: 1987–90.
Gray GE, Pike MC, Henderson BE. Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in different countries in relation to known risk factors and dietary practices. Br J Cancer 1979; 39: 1–7.
Shamberger RJ, Tytko SA, Willis CE. Antioxidants and cancer, VI: selenium and age-adjusted human cancer mortality. Arch Environ Health 1976; 31: 231–5.
Clark LC. The epidemiology of selenium and cancer. Fed Proc 1985; 44: 2584–9.
Schrauzer GN, White DA, Schneider CJ. Cancer mortality correlation studies, III: statistical associations with dietary selenium intakes. Bioinorg Chem 1977; 7: 23–34.
Levander OA. The need for a measure of selenium status. J Am Coll Toxicol 1986; 5: 37–44.
Hunter DJ. Biochemical indicators of dietary intake. In: Willett WC, ed. Nutritional Epidemiology. New York, NY (USA): Oxford University Press, 1990: 143–216.
Hunter DJ, Morris JS, Chute CG, et al. Predictors of selenium concentration in human toenails. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 114–22.
Graham S, Marshall J, Mettlin C, Rzepka T, Nemoto T, Byers T. Diet in the epidemiology of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 116: 68–75.
Howe GR, Hirohata T, Hislop TG, et al. Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case-control studies. JNCI 1990; 82: 561–9.
Martin-Moreno JM, Willett WC, Gorgojo L, et al. Dietary fat, olive oil intake and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 1994; 54: 774–80.
Trichopoulou A, Katsouyanni K, Stuver S, et al. Consumption of olive oil and specific food groups in relation to breast cancer risk in Greece. JNCI 1995; 87: 110–6.
Hunter DJ, Willett WC. Diet, body size, and breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 1993; 15: 110–32.
Goldin BR, Aldercreutz H, Gorbach SL, et al. Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 1542–7.
Peto R, Doll R, Buckley JD, Sporn MB. Can dietary beta-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nature 1981; 290: 201–8.
Sporn MB, Roberts AB. Role of retinoids in differentiation and carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 3034–40.
Howe GR, Friedenreich CM, Jain M, Miller AB. A cohort study of fat intake and risk of breast cancer. JNCI 1991; 83: 336–40.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Underwood BA, Speizer FE, Rosner B, Hennekens CH. Validation of a dietary questionnaire with plasma carotenoid and alpha-tocopherol levels. Am J Clin Nutr 1983; 38: 631–9.
Gerber M, Cavallo F, Marubini F, et al. Liposoluable vitamins and lipid parameters in breast cancer. A joint study in northern Italy and southern France. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 489–94.
London SJ, Stein EA, Henderson IC, et al. Carotenoids, retinol, and vitamin E and risk of proliferative benign breast disease and breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1992; 3: 503–12.
Graham S, Hellmann R, Marshall J, et al. Nutritional epidemiology of postmenopausal breast cancer in western New York. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 134: 552–66.
Meyer F, Verreault R. Erythrocyte selenium and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 125: 917–9.
Van't Veer P, Kalb CM, Verhoef P, et al. Dietary fiber, β-carotene and breast cancer: results from a case-control study. Int J Cancer 1990; 45: 825–8.
Longnecker M. Alcoholic beverage consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis and review. Cancer Causes Control 1994; 5: 73–82.
Minton JP, Foecking MK, Webster DJ, Matthews RH. Response of fibrocystic disease to caffeine withdrawal and correlation of cyclic nucleotides with breast disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979; 135: 157–8.
Rosenberg L, Miller DR, Helmrich SP, et al. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 391–9.
Schairer C, Brinton LA, Hoover RN. Methylxanthines and breast cancer. Int J Cancer 1987; 40: 469–73.
McLaughlin CC, Mahoney MC, Nasca PC, Metzger BB, Baptiste MS, Field NA. Breast cancer and methylxanthine consumption. Cancer Causes Control 1992 3: 175–8.
Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruits, and cancer. II. Mechanisms. Cancer Causes Control 1991; 2: 427–42.
Lee HP, Gourley L, Duffy SW, Estève J, Lee J, Day NE. Dietary effects on breast cancer risk in Singapore. Lancet 1991; 337: 1197–200.
Adlercreutz H, Honjo H, Higashi A, et al. Urinary excretion of lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens in Japanese men and women consuming traditional Japanese diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54: 1093–100.
Yyan J-M, Wang Q-S, Ross RK, Henderson BE, Yu MC. Diet and breast cancer in Shanghai and Tianjin, China. Br J Cancer 1995; 71: 1353–8.
Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary fat and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1992; 268: 2037–44.
Rosner B, Spiegelman D, Willett WC. Correction of logistic regression relative risk estimates and confidence intervals for measurement error; the case of multiple covariates measured with error. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 734–45.
Prentice RL, Sheppard L. Dietary fat and cancer: consistency of the epidemiologic data, and disease prevention than may follow from a practical reduction in fat consumption. Cancer Causes Control 1990; 1: 81–97.
De Waard F, Baanders-van Halewijn EA. A prospective study in general practice on breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer 1974; 14: 153–60.
den Tonkelaan I, Seidell JC. Collette HJ, de Waard F. A prospective study on obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to breast cancer in post-menopausal women participating in the DOM project. Int J Cancer 1994; 69: 352–7.
Swanson CA, Jones DY, Schatzkin A, Brinton LA, Ziegler RG. Breast cancer risk assessed by anthropometry in the NHANES I epidemiological follow-up study. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 5363–7.
London SJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rosner F, Speizer FE. Prospective study of relative weight, height, and risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1989; 262: 2853–8.
Tornberg SA, Holm LE, Carstensen JM. Breast cancer risk in relation to serum cholesterol, serum beta-lipo-protein, height, weight, and blood pressure. Acta Oncologica 1988; 27: 31–7.
Tretli S. Height and weight in relation to breast cancer morbidity and mortality. A prospective study of 570,000 women in Norway. Cancer 1989; 44: 23–30.
Vatten LJ, Kvinnsland S. Body height and risk of breast cancer. A prospective study of 23,831 Norwegian women. Br J Cancer 1990; 61: 881–5.
Vatten LJ, Kvinnsland S. Prospective study of height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer. Acta Oncologica 1992; 31: 195–200.
Trichopoulos D, Lipman RD. Mammary gland mass and breast cancer risk. Epidemiology 1992; 3: 523–6.
Hunter DJ, Willett WC. Diet, body build, and breast cancer. Annu Rev Nutr 1994; 14: 393–418.
Rohan TE, Howe GR, Friedenreich CM, Jain M, Miller AB. Dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, and risk of breast cancer: a cohort study. Cancer Causes Control 1993; 4: 29–37.
Graham S, Zielezny M, Marshall J, et al. Diet in the epidemiology of postmenopausal breast cancer in the New York State cohort. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 1327–37.
Paganini-Hill A, Chao A, Ross RK, Henderson BE. Vitamin A, beta-carotene and the risk of cancer: a prospective study. JNCI 1987; 79: 443–8.
Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of consumption of vitamins C, E and A and breast cancer risk. New Engl J Med 1993; 329: 234–40.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Underwood BA, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and plasma retinol levels: a randomized trial among women. JNCI 1984; 73: 1445–8.
Marubini E, Decarli A, Costa A, et al. the relationship of dietary intake and serum levels of retinol and β-carotene with breast cancer. Cancer 1988; 61: 173–80.
Potischman N, McCullock CF, Byers T, et al. Breast cancer and plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52: 909–15.
Wald NJ, Boreham J, Hayward JL, Bulbrook RD. Plasma retinol, β-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to the future risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1984; 49: 321–4.
Knekt P, Aromaa A, Maatela J, et al. Serum vitamin A and the subsequent risk of cancer: cancer incidence follow-up of the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 857–70.
Comstock GW, Helzlsouer KJ, Bush TL. Prediagnostic serum levels of carotenoids and vitamin E as related to subsequent cancer in Washington County, Maryland. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 260S-4S.
Wald NJ, Nicolaides-Bouman A, Hudson GA. Plasma retinol, β-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to future risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1988; 57: 235.
Knekt P. Serum vitamin E level and risk of female cancers. Int J Epidemiol 1988; 17: 281–6.
Hunter DJ, Morris JS, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC. A prospective study of selenium status and breast cancer risk. JAMA 1990; 264: 1128–31.
Van Noord PA, Collette HJ, Maas MJ, De Waard F. Selenium levels in nails of premenopausal breast cancer patients assessed prediagnostically in a cohort-nested casereferent study among women screened in the DOM project. Int J Epidemiol 1987; 16(suppl): 318–22.
Coates RJ, Weiss NS, Daling JR, Morris JS, Labbe RF. Serum levels of selenium and retinol and the subsequent risk of cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 515–23.
Knekt P, Aromaa A, Maatela J, et al. Serum selenium and subsequent risk of cancer among Finnish men and women. JNCI 1990; 82: 864–8.
Overvad K, Wang DY, Olsen J, et al. Selenium in human mammary carcinogenesis: a case-cohort study. Eur J Cancer 1991; 27: 900–2.
Longnecker M, Berlin JA, Orza MJ, Chalmers TC. A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption in relation to breast cancer risk. JAMA 1988; 260: 642–6.
Schatzkin A, Carter CC, Green SB, et al. Is alcohol consumption related to breast cancer? Results from the Framingham Heart Study. JNCI 1989; 81: 31–5.
Simon MS, Carman LS, Wolfe R, Schottenfeld D. Alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer: a report from the Tecumseh Community Health Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1991; 44: 755–61.
Hiatt RA, Bawol RD. Alcoholic beverage consumption and breast cancer incidence. Am J Epidemiol 1984; 120: 676–83.
Garfinkel L, Bofetta P, Stellman SD. Alcohol and breast cancer: a cohort study. Prev Med 1988; 17: 686–93.
Gapstur SM, Potter JD, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. Increased risk of breast cancer with alcohol consumption in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 1221–31.
Freidenreich CM, Howe GR, Miller AB, Jain MG. A cohort study of alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 137: 512–20.
van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, Van't Veer P. A cohort study on alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women (Abstract). Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139: S70.
Snowden DA, Phillips RL. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers. Am J Public Health 1984; 74: 820–3.
Folsom AR, McKenzie DR, Bisgard KM, Kushi LH, Sellers TA. No association between caffeine intake and postmenopausal breast cancer incidence in the Iowa Women's Health study. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 380–3.
Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of caffeine, coffee, tea, and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 1000–1.
Michels KB, Willett WC. The Women's Health Initiative: Daughter of Politics or Science? In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer Prevention. Philadelphia, PA (USA): JB Lippincott Company, 1992: 1–11.
Freedman LS, Prentice RL, Clifford C, et al. Dietary fat and breast cancer: where we are. JNCI 1993; 85: 764–5.
Formelli F, Clerici M, De Palo G, Costa A, Veronesi U. Chronic oral administration of fenretinide, as a chemopreventive agent to breast cancer patients, does not affect plasma α-tocopherol concentration. Ann Oncol 1991; 2: 446–7.
Tannenbaum A. The genesis and growth of tumors. Effects of a high fat diet. Cancer Res 1942; 2: 468–75.
Appleton BS, Landers RE. Oil gavage effects on tumor incidence in the national toxicology program's 2-year carcinogenesis bioassay. Adv Exp Med Biol 1985; 206: 99–104.
Cohen LA, Kendall ME, Zang E, Meschter C, Rose DP. Modulation of N-nitrosomethylurea-induced mammary tumor promotion by dietary fiber and fat. JNCI 1991; 83: 496–501.
Fraker LD, Halter SA, Forbes JT. Growth inhibition by retinol of a human breast carcinoma cell line in vitro and in athymic mice. Cancer Res 1984; 44: 5757–63.
McCormick DL, Burns PJ, Albert RE. Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mammary carcinogenesis by retinyl acetate. JNCI 1981; 66: 559–64.
Moon RC, Grubbs CJ, Sporn MB, Goodman DG. Retinyl acetate inhibits mammary carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Nature 1977; 267: 620–1.
Moon RC, McCormiek DL, Mehta RG, Inhibition of carcinogenesis by retinoids. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 2469S-75S.
Harman D. Dimethylbenzanthracene-induced cancer; inhibitory effect of dietary vitamin E (Abstract). Clin Res 1969; 17: 125.
Lee C, Chen C. Enhancement of mammary tumorigenesis in rats by vitamin E deficiency (Abstract). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1979; 20: 132.
King MM, McCay PB. Modulation of tumor incidence and possible mechanism of mammary carcinogenesis by dietary antioxidants. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 2485S-90S.
Dorgan JF, Schatzkin A. Antioxidant micronutrients in cancer prevention. Hematology/Oncology Clinics North America 1991; 5: 43–68.
Abdul-Hajj YJ, Kelliher M, Failure of ascorbic acid to inhibit growth of transplantable and dimethylbenzanthracene induced rat mammary tumors. Cancer Lett 1982; 17: 67–73.
Ip C. The chemopreventive role of selenium in carcinogenesis. J Am Coll Toxicol 1986; 5: 7–20.
Michnovicz JJ, Bradlow HL. Induction of estradiol metabolism by dietary indole-3-carbinol in humans. JNCI 1990; 82: 947–9.
Bradlow AL, Michnovicy JJ, Telang NT, Osborne MP. Effect of dietary indose-3-carbinol or estradiol metabolism and spontaneous mammary tumors in mice. Carcinogenesis 1991; 12: 1571–4.
Cassidy A, Bingham S, Carlson J, Setchell KD. Biological effects of plant estrogens in premenopausal women (Abstract). FASEB J 1993; 7: A866.
La Vecchia C, Deearli A, Franceschi S, Gentile A, Negri E, Parazzini F. Dietary factors and the risk of breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 1987; 10: 2055–14.
Katsouyanni K, Willett W, Trichopoulos D, et al. Risk of breast cancer among Greek women in relation to nutrient intake. Cancer 1988; 61: 181–5.
Rohan TE, McMichael AJ, Baghurst PA, A population-based case-control study of diet and breast cancer in Australia. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 61: 173–80.
Toniolo P, Riboli E, Protta F, Charrel M, Cappa APM. Calorle-providing nutrients and risk of breast cancer. JNCI 1989; 81: 278–86.
Ewertz M, Gill C. Dietary factors and breast cancer risk in Denmark. Int J Cancer 1990; 46: 779–84.
Ingram DM, Nottage E, Roberts T. The role of diet in the development of breast cancer: a case-control study of patients with breast cancer, benign epithelial hyperplasia and fibrocystic disease of the breast. Br J Cancer 1991; 64: 187–91.
Lee HP, Gourley L, Duffy SW, Estève J, Lee J, Day NE. Dietary effects on breast cancer risk in Singapore. Lancet 1991; 337: 1197–200.
Richardson S, Gerber M, Cenee S. The role of fat, animal protein and some vitamin consumption in breast cancer: a case-control study in Southern France. Int J Cancer 1991; 48: 1–9.
Zaridze D, Lifanova Y, Maximovitch D, Day NE, Duffy SW. Diet, alcohol consumption and reproductive factors in a case-control study of breast cancer in Moscow. Int J Cancer 1991; 48: 493–501.
Jones DY, Schatzkin A, Green SB, et al. Dietary fat and breast cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. I. Epidemiologic follow-up study. JNCI 1987; 79: 465–71.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 22–8.
Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE. Dietary habits and breast cancer incidence among Seventh Day Adventists. Cancer 1989; 64: 582–90.
Knekt P, Albanes D, Seppanen R, et al. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52: 903–8.
Kushi LH, Sellers TA, Potter JD, et al. Dietary fat and postmenopausal breast cancer. JNCI 1992; 84: 1092–9.
Byrne C, Ursin G, Ziegler R. Dietary fat and breast cancer in NHANES I continued follow-up. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 1024–5.
Van den Brandt PA, van't Veer P, Goldhbbohm RA, et al. A prospective cohort study on dietary fat and breast cancer risk. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 75–82.
Toniolo P, Riboli E, Shore RE, Pasternak BS. Consumption of meat, animal products, protein, and fat and risk of breast cancer: a prospective cohort study in New York. Epidemiology 1994; 5: 391–7.