Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 265-288

First online:

A modified profile method for determining the vertical fluxes of NO, NO2, ozone, and HNO3 in the atmospheric surface layer

  • Gerhard KrammAffiliated withFraunhofer-Institut für Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IFU)
  • , Hans MüllerAffiliated withFraunhofer-Institut für Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IFU)
  • , David FowlerAffiliated withInstitute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE)
  • , Klaus D. HöfkenAffiliated withGST-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Projektträger für Umwell-und Klimaforschung
  • , Franz X. MeixnerAffiliated withFraunhofer-Institut für Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IFU)
  • , Eberhard SchallerAffiliated withFraunhofer-Institut für Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IFU)

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A modified profile method for determining the vertical deposition (or/and exhalation) fluxes of NO, NO2, ozone, and HNO3 in the atmospheric surface layer is presented. This method is based on the generally accepted micrometeorological ideas of the transfer of momentum, sensible heat and matter near the Earth's surface and the chemical reactions among these trace gases. The analysis (aerodynamic profile method) includes a detailed determination of the micrometeorological quantities (such as the friction velocity, the fluxes of sensible and latent heat, the roughness length and the zero plane displacement), and of the height-invariant fluxes of the composed chemically conservative trace gases with ‘group’ concentrations c 1=[NO]+[NO2]+[HNO3], c 2=[NO2]+[O3]+3/2·[HNO3], and c 3=[NO]−[O3]−1/2·[HNO3]. The fluxes of the ‘individual’ species are finally determined by the numerical solution of a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the concentrations of ozone and HNO3 (‘decoding’ method). The parameterization of the fluxes is based on the flux-gradient relationships in the turbulent region of the atmospheric surface layer. The model requires only the vertical profile data of wind velocity, temperature and humidity and concentrations of NO, NO2, ozone, and HNO3.

The method has been applied to vertical profile data obtained at Jülich (September 1984) and collected in the BIATEX joint field experiment LOVENOX (Halvergate, U.K., September 1989).

Key words

Biosphere-atmosphere exchange dry deposition tlux-gradient relationships HNO3 fluxes NO fluxes NO2 fluxes ozone fluxes resistance approach turbulent transfer