Alpert P., Newell E. A., Chu C., Glyphis J., Gulmon S. L., Hollinger D. Y., Johnson N. D., Mooney H. A. & Puttick G. 1985. Allocation to reproduction in the chaparral shrub, Diplacus aurantiacus. Oecologia 66: 309–316.
Baker, W. L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication No. 1175, Washington, D.C.
Bazzaz F. A., Carlson R. W. & Harper J. L. 1979. Contribution to reproductive effort by photosynthesis of flowers and fruits. Nature 279: 554–555.
Beck C. B., Schmid R. and Rothwell G. W. 1982. Stelar morphology and the primary vascular system of seed plants. Bot. Rev. 48: 691–815.
Belsky A. J. 1986. Does herbivory benefit plants? A review of the evidence. Amer. Nat. 127: 870–892.
Benner B. L. 1988. Effects of apex removal and nutrient supplementation on branching and seed production in Thlaspi arvense (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany 75: 645–651.
Bergelson J. & Crawley M. J. 1992a. Herbivory and Ipomopsis aggregata: the disadvantages of being eaten. Amer. Nat. 139: 870–882.
Bergelson J. & Crawley M. J. 1992b. The effects of grazers on the performance of individuals and populations of scarlet gilia, Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 90: 435–444.
Bertin R. I. 1982. The ecology of sex expression in red buckeye. Ecology 63: 445–456.
Chan C. B. & Cain J. C. 1967. The effect of seed formation on subsequent flowering in apple. Proc. of the Amer. Soc. of Hort. Sci. 91: 63–68.
Coleman J. S. & Leonard A. S. 1995. Why it matters where on a leaf a folivore feeds. Oecologia 101: 324–328.
Coley P. D., Bryant J. P. & ChapinIII F. S. 1985. Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense. Science 230: 895–899.
Cook C. W. & Stoddart L. A. 1960. Physiological responses of big sagebrush to different types of herbage removal. J. Range Manag. 13: 14–16.
Danell K., Huss-Danell K. & Bergstrom R. 1985. Interactions between browsing moose and two species of birch in Sweden. Ecology 66: 1867–1878.
Davis J. 1967. Some effects of deer browsing on chamise sprouts after fire. Amer. Midl. Nat. 77: 234–238.
Davis J. M., Gordon M. P. & Smit B. A. 1991. Assimilate movement dictates remote sites of wound-induced gene expression in poplar leaves. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 88: 2392–2396.
DeClerk-Floate R. & Price P. W. 1994. Impact of a bud-galling midge on bud populations of Salix exigua. Oikos 70: 253–260.
DeStevens D. & Putz F. E. 1984. Mortality rates of some rain forest palms in Panama. Principes 29: 162–165.
DeLong D. M. 1971. The bionomics of leafhoppers. Ann. Rev. Entom. 16: 179–210.
Denno R. F., McClure M. S. & Ott J. R. 1995. Interspecific interactions in phytophagous insects: competition reexamined and resurrected. Ann. Rev. of Entom. 40: 297–331.
Doak D. F. 1991. The consequences of herbivory for dwarf fireweed: different time scales, different morphological scales. Ecology 72: 1397–1407.
Dyer M. I., Acra M. A., Wang G. M., Coleman D. C., Freckman D. W., McNaughton S. J. & Strain B. R. 1991. Source-sink carbon relations in two Panicum coloratum ecotypes in response to herbivory. Ecology 72: 1472–1483.
Edwards P. J. & Wratten S. D. 1983. Wound induced defences in plants and their consequences for patterns of insect grazing. Oecologia 59: 88–93.
Fay P. A. & Hartnett D. C. 1991. Constraints on growth and allocation patterns of Silphium integrifolium (Asteraceae) caused by a cynipid gall wasp. Oecologia 88: 243–250.
Feeny P. 1976. Plant apparency and chemical defense. pp. 1–40. In: Wallace J. W. & Mansell R. L. (eds), Biochemical interaction between plants and insects. Plenum Press, New York.
Fox J. F. 1995. Shoot demographic responses to manipulation of reproductive effort by bud removal in a willow. Oikos 72:283–287.
Garrish R. S. & Lee T. D. 1989. Physiological integration in Cassia fasciculata Michx.: inflorescence removal and defoliation experiments. Oecologia 81: 279–284.
Geber M. A. 1990. The cost of meristem limitation in Polygonum arenastrum: negative genetic correlations between fecundity and growth. Evolution 44: 799–819.
Gold W. G. & Caldwell M. M. 1989a. The effects of spatial pattern of defoliation on regrowth of a tussock grass. I. Growth responses. Oecologia 80: 289–296.
Gold W. G. & Caldwell M. M. 1989b. The effects of spatial pattern of defoliation on regrowth of a tussock grass. II. Canopy gas exchange. Oecologia 81: 437–442.
Hall F. R. & Ferree D. C. 1976. Effects of insect injury simulation on photosynthesis of apple leaves. J. Econ. Entom. 69: 245–248.
Hartnett D. C. & Abrahamson W. G. 1979. The effects of stem gall insects on life history patterns on Solidago canadensis. Ecology 60: 910–917.
Haukioja E. 1991. The influence of grazing on the evolution, morphology and physiology of plants as modular organisms. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 333: 241–247.
Haukioja E., Ruohomäki K., Senn J. Suomela J. & Walls M. 1990. Consequences of herbivory in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa): importance of the functional organization of the tree. Oecologia 82: 238–247.
Honkanen T. & Haukioja E. 1994. Why does a branch suffer more after branch-wide than after tree-wide defoliation? Oikos 71: 441–450.
Honkanen T., Haukioja E. & Suomela J. 1994. Effects of simulated defoliation and debudding on needle and shoot growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris): implications of plant source/sink relationships for plant-herbivore studies. Funct. Ecol. 8: 631–639.
Horber E. 1980. Types and classification of resistance. pp. 15–21. In: Maxwell F. G. and Jennings P. R. (eds), Breeding plants resistant to insects, Wiley, New York.
Horton M. & Lacey E. P. 1994. Carbon integration in Plantago aristata (Plantaginaceae): the reproductive effects of defoliation. Amer. J. Bot. 81: 278–286.
Isebrands J. G., Dickson R. E. & Larson P. R. 1976. Translocation and incorporation of 14C into the petiole from different regions within developing cottonwood leaves. Planta 128: 185–194.
Janzen D. H. 1976. Effect of defoliation on fruit-bearing branches of the Kentucky coffee tree, Gymnocladus dioicus (Leguminosae). Amer. Midl. Nat. 95: 474–478.
Jones C. G., Hopper R. F., Coleman J. S. and Krischik V. A. 1993. Control of systemically induced herbivore resistance by plant vascular architecture. Oecologia 93: 452–456.
Karlsson P. S. 1994. The significance of internal nutrient cycling in branches for growth and reproduction of Rhododendron lapponicum. Oikos 70: 191–200.
Kerley G. I. H., Tiver F. & Whitford W. G. 1993. Herbivory of clonal populations: cattle browsing affects reproduction and population structure of Yucca elata. Oecologia 93: 12–17.
Larson K. C. & Whitham T. G. 1991. Manipulation of food resources by a gall-forming aphid: the physiology of sink-source interactions. Oecologia 88: 15–21.
Larson P. R. 1977. Phyllotactic transitions in the vascular system of Populus deltoides Bartr. as determined by 14C labeling. Planta 134:241–249.
Larson P. R. & Dickson R. E. 1973. Distribution of imported 14C in developing leaves of eastern cottonwood according to phyllotaxy. Planta 111: 95–112.
Larson P. R. & Dickson R. E. 1986. 14C translocation pathways in honeylocust and green ash: Woody plants with complex leaf forms. Phys. Plant. 66: 21–30.
Lee S. Y. 1991. Herbivory as an ecological process in a Kandelia candel (Rhizophoraceae) mangal in Hong Kong. Journal of Trop. Ecol. 7: 337–348.
Lehtilä, K. 1996. Optimal distribution of herbivory and localized compensatory responses within a plant. Vegetatio this volume (in press).
Lehtilä K., Tuomi J. & Sulkinoja M. 1994. Bud demography of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa near tree line. Ecology 75: 945–955.
Lowman M. D. 1982. Effects of different rates and methods of leaf area removal on rain forest seedlings of coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum). Aust. J. Bot. 30: 477–483.
Marquis R. J. 1988. Intra-crown variation in leaf herbivory and seed production in striped maple, Acer pensylvanicum L. (Aceraceae). Oecologia 77: 52–55.
Marquis R. J. 1991. Physiological constraints on response by Ostrya virginiana (Betulaceae) to localized folivory. Can. J. Bot. 69: 1951–1955.
Marquis R. J. 1992. A bite is a bite is a bite? Constraints on response to folivory in Piper arieianum (Piperaceae). Ecology 73: 143–152.
Marshall D. L. 1989. Integration of response to defoliation within plants of two species of Sesbania. Funct. Ecol. 3: 207–214.
Mauricio R., Bowers M. D. & Bazzaz F. A. 1993. Pattern of leaf damage affects fitness of the annual plant Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae). Ecology 74: 2066–2071.
McCarthy B. C. & Quinn J. A. 1992. Fruit maturation patterns of Carya spp. (Juglandaceae): an intra-crown analysis of growth and reproduction. Oecologia 91: 30–38.
McClure M. S. & Price P. W. 1975. Competition and coexistence among sympatric Erythroneura leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on American sycamore. Ecology 56: 1388–1397.
McCrea K. D., Abrahamson W. G. & Weis A. E. 1985. Goldenrod ball gall effects on Solidago altissima: 14C translocation and growth. Ecology 66: 1902–1907.
Miquelle D. G. 1983. Browse regrowth and consumption following sumer defoliation by moose. J. Wildl. Manag. 47: 17–24.
Moran N. A. & Whitham T. G. 1990. Interspecific competition between root-feeding and leaf-galling aphids mediated by hostplant resistance. Ecology 71: 1050–1058.
Obeso J. R. & Grubb P. J. 1993. Fruit maturation in the shrub Ligustrum vulgare (Oleaceae): lack of defoliation effects. Oikos 68: 309–316.
Oesterheld M. & McNaughton S. J. 1988. Intraspecific variation in the response of Themeda triandra to defoliation: the effect of time of recovery and growth rates on compensatory growth. Oecologia 77: 181–186.
Owen-Smith N., Robbins C. T. & Hagerman A. E. 1993. Browse and browsers: interactions between woody plants and mammalian herbivores. Tr. Ecol. Evol. 8: 158–160.
Paige K. N. & Whitham T. G. 1987. Overcompensation in response to mammalian herbivory: The advantages of being eaten. Amer. Nat. 129: 407–416.
Painter R. H. 1958. Resistance of plants to insects. Ann. Rev. Entom. 3: 267–290.
Pilson D. 1992. Aphid distribution and the evolution of goldenrod resistance. Evolution 46: 1358–1372.
Polley H. W. & Detling J. K. 1990. Grazing-mediated differentiation in Agropyron smithii: evidence from populations with different grazing histories. Oikos 57: 326–332.
Price E. A. C. & Hutchings M. J. 1992. The causes and developmental effects of integration and independence between different parts of Glechoma hederacea clones. Oikos 63: 376–386.
Price E. A. C., Marshall C. & Hutchings M. J. 1992. Studies of growth in the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. I. Patterns of physiological integration. J. Ecol. 80: 25–38.
Quinlan J. D. 1969. Mobilization of 14C in the spring following autumn assimilation of 14CO2 by apple rootstock. J. Hort. Sci. 44: 107–110.
Rosenthal, G. A. & Berenbaum, M. R. 1992. Herbivores, their interactions with secondary plant metabolites. V. II. Ecological and evolutionary processes. Second edition. Academic Press.
Rosenthal J. P. & Kotanen P. M. 1994. Terrestrial plant tolerance to herbivory. Tr. Ecol. Evol. 9: 145–148.
Roundy B. A. & Ruyle G. B. 1989. Effects of herbivory on twig dynamics of a Sonoran desert shrub Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schn. J. Appl. Ecol. 26: 701–710.
Scott A. W. & Whalley R. D. B. 1984. The influence of intensive sheep grazing on genotypic differentiation in Danthonia linkii, D. richardsonii and D. racemosa on the New England Tablelands. Aust. J. Ecol. 9: 419–429.
Senn J. & Haukioja E. 1994. Reactions of the mountain birch to bud removal: effects of severity and timing, and implications for herbivores. Funct. Ecol. 8: 494–501.
Shea M. M. & Watson M. A. 1989. Patterns of leaf and flower removal: their effect on fruit growth in Chamaenerion angustifolium (fireweed). Amer. J. Bot. 76: 884–890.
Snow A. A. & Stanton M. L. 1988. Aphids limit fecundity of a weedy annual (Raphanus sativus). Am. J. Bot. 75: 589–593.
Spears E. E.Jr. & May P. G. 1988. Effect of defoliation on gender expression and fruit set in Passiflora incarnata. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 1842–1847.
Sprugel D. G., Hinckley T. M. & Schaap W. 1991. The theory and practice of branch autonomy. Ann. Rev. Ecol. and Syst. 22: 309–334.
Stephenson A. G. 1980. Fruit set, herbivory, fruit reduction, and the fruiting strategies of Catalpa speciosa (Bignoniaceae). Ecology 61: 57–64.
Stickler F. C. & Pauli A. W. 1961. Leaf removal in grain sorghum. I. Effects of certain defoliation treatments on yield and components of yield. Agr. J. 53: 99–102.
Thomas L. P. & Watson M. A. 1988. Leaf removal and the apparent effects of architectural constraints on development in Capsicum annuum. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 840–843.
Trumble J. T., Kolodny-Hirsch D. M. & Ting I. P. 1993. Plant compensation for arthropod herbivory. Ann. Rev. of Entom. 38: 93–119.
Tscharntke T. 1992. Coexistence, tritrophic interactions and density dependence in a species-rich parasitoid community. J. Anim. Ecol. 61: 59–67.
Tuomi J., Nilsson P. & Éström M. 1994. Plant compensatory reponses: bud dormancy as an adaptation to herbivory. Ecology 75: 1429–1436.
Tuomi J., Niemelä P., Rousi M., Sirén S. & Vuorisalo T. 1988a. Induced accumulation of foliage phenols in mountain birch: branch response to defoliation? Amer. Nat. 132: 602–608.
Tuomi J., Nisula S., Vuorisalo T., Niemelä P. & Jormalainen V. 1988b. Reproductive effort of short shoots in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). Experientia 44: 540–541.
Tuomi J., Vuorisalo T., Niemelä P., Nisula S. & Jormalainen V. 1988c. Localized effects of branch defoliations on weight gain of female inflorescences in Betula pubescens. Oikos 51: 327–330.
Tuomi J., Vuorisalo T., Niemelä P. & Haukioja E. 1989. Effects of localized defoliations on female inflorescences in mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa. Can. J. Bot. 67: 334–338.
van derMeijden E., Wijn M. & Verkaar H. J. 1988. Defence and regrowth, alternative plant strategies in the struggle against herbivores. Oikos 51: 355–363.
Vranjic J. A. & Gullan P. J. 1990. The effect of a sap-sucking herbivore, Eriococcus coriaceus (Homoptera: Eriococcidae), on seedling growth and architecture in Eucalyptus blakelyi. Oikos 59: 157–162.
Watson M. A. 1986. Integrated physiological units in plants. Tr. Ecol. Evol. 1: 119–123.
Watson M.A. & Casper B.B. 1984. Morphogenetic constraints on patterns of carbon distribution in plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15: 233–258.
Weis A. E. 1984. Apical dominance asserted over lateral buds by the gall of Rhabdophaga strobiloides (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Can. Entom. 116: 1277–1279.
Weis A. E. & Kapelinski A. 1984. Manipulation of host plant development by the gall-midge Rhabdophaga strobiloides. 1984. Ecol. Entom. 9: 457–465.
Whitham T. G. & Mopper S. 1985. Chronic herbivory: impacts on architecture and sex expression of pinyon pine. Science 228: 1089–1091.
Whitham T.G., Maschinski J., Larson K.C. & Paige K.N. 1991. Plant responses to herbivory: the continuum from negative to positive and underlying physiological mechanisms. pp. 227–256. In: Price P. W., Lewinsohn T. M., Fernandes G. W., & W. W.Benson (eds), Plant-animal interactions, evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. Wiley, New York.
Wisdom C. S., Crawford C. S. & Aldon E. F. 1989. Influence of insect herbivory on photosynthetic area and reproduction in Gutierrezia species. J. Ecol. 77: 685–692.
Zangerl A. R. & Berenbaum M. R. 1990. Furanocoumarin induction in wild parsnip: Genetics and populational variation. Ecology 71: 1933–1940.