Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. I. Epidemiology (Review).Cancer Causes Control 1991;5: 325–57.
Fontham ETH. Protective dietary factors and lung cancer.Int J Epidemiol 1990;19(Suppl. 1): S32-S42.
Willett WC. Vitamin A and lung cancer.Nutr Rev 1990;48: 201–11.
Ziegler RG. A review of epidemiologic evidence that carotenoids reduce the risk of cancer.J Nutr 1989;119: 116–22.
Ziegler RG. Vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids and the risk of cancer.Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53: 251S-9S.
Olson JA. Carotenoids, vitamin A and cancer.J Nutr 1986;116: 1127–30.
Graham S. Epidemiology of retinoids and cancer.JNCI 1984;73: 1423–8.
Hennekens CH, Mayrent SL, Willett W. Vitamin A, carotenoids, and retinoids.Cancer 1986;58(Suppl. 8): 1837–41.
Krinsky N. Effects of carotenoids in cellular and animal systems.Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53: 238S-46S.
National Research Council (US), Committee on Diet and Health.Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. US: National Academy Press, 1989.
Micozzi MS, Beecher GR, Taylor PR, Khachlik F. Carotenoid analyses of selected raw and cooked foods associated with a lower risk for cancer.JNCI 1990;82: 282–5.
Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Couneil.Recommended Dietary Allowances,10th Edn, Washington, DC: National Academy of Science, 1989.
Wattenberg LW. Chemoprevention of cancer.Cancer Res 1985;45: 1–8.
Di Mascio P, Murphy ME, Sies H. Antioxidant defense systems: the role of earotenoids, tocopherols, and thiols.Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53: 194S-200S.
Bendich A, Shapiro SS. Effect of beta-carotene and canthaxanthin on the immune responses of the rat.J Clin Nutr 1988;116: 2254–62.
Prasad KN, Edwards-Prasad J. Expressions of some molecular cancer risk factors and their modification by vitamins.J Am Coll Nutr 1990;9: 28–34.
Bertram JS, Kolonel LN, Meyskens FL. Rationale and strategies for chemoprevention of cancer in humans.Cancer Res 1987;47: 3012–31.
Mathews-Roth MM. Carotenoids and cancer prevention—experimental and epidemiological studies.Pure Appl Chem 1985;57: 717–22.
Rieder A, Adamek M, Wrba H. Delay of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatoma in rats by carrot feeding.Oncology 1983;40: 120–3.
Shekelle RB, Lepper M, Liu S, et al. Dietary vitamin A and risk of cancer in the Western Electric Study.Lancet 1981;11: 1185–90.
Paganini-Hill A, Chao A, Ross RK, Henderson BE. Vitamin A, beta-carotene, and the risk of cancer: a prospective study.JNCI 1987;79: 443–8.
Ziegler RG, Mason TJ, Stemhagen A, et al. Carotenoid intake, vegetables, and the risk of lung cancer among white men in New Jersey.Am J Epidemiol 1986;123: 1080–93.
Le Marchand L, Yoshizawa CN, Kolonel LN, Hankin JH, Goodman MT. Vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: a population-based case-control study in Hawaii.JNCI 1989;81: 1158–64.
Howe GR, Hirohata T, Hislop, et al. Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case-control studies.JNCI 1990;82: 561–9.
Stähelin HB, Gey KF, Eichholzer M, Lüdin E. β-Carotene and cancer prevention: the Basel study.Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53: 263S-9S.
Nomura AMY, Stemmerman GN, Heilbrun LK, Salkeld RM, Vuilleumier JP. Serum vitamin levels and the risk of cancer of specific sites in men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii.Cancer Res 1985;45: 2369–72.
Menkes MS, Comstock GW, Vuillemier JP, Helsing KJ, Rider AA, Brookmeyer R. Serum beta-carotene, vitamins A and E, selenium, and the risk of lung cancer.N Engl J Med 1986;315: 1250–4.
Wald NJ, Thompson SG, Densem JW, Boreham J, Bailey A. Serum β-carotene and subsequent risk of cancer: results from the BUPA study.Br J Cancer 1988;57: 428–33.
Connett JE, Kuller LH, Kjelsberg MO, et al. Relationship between carotenoids and cancer: The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) Study.Cancer 1989;64: 126–34.
Burney PGJ, Comstock GW, Morris JS. Scrologic precursors of cancer: serum; micronutrients and the subsequent risk of panereatic cancer.Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49: 895–900.
Helzlsouer KJ, Comstock GW, Morris JS. Selenium, lycopene, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, retinol, and subsequent bladder cancer.Cancer Res 1989;49: 6144–8.
Comstock GW, Helzlsouer KJ, Bush TL. Prediagnostic serum levels of carotenoids and vitamin E as related to subsequent cancer in Washington County, Maryland.Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53: 260S-4S.
Hsing AW, Comstock GW, Abbey H, Polk BF. Serologic precursors of cancer. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol and risk of prostate cancer.JNCI 1990;82: 941–6.
Stryker WS, Stampfer MJ, Stein EA, et al. Diet, plasma levels of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, and risk of malignant melanoma.Am J Epidemiol 1990;131: 597–611.
Hennekens CH, Physicians Health Study Research Group. Strategies for a primary prevention trial of cancer and cardiovascular discase among U.S. physicians.Am J Epidemiol 1983;118: 453–4.
Stich HF, Rosin MP, Vallejera MO. Reduction with vitamin A and beta-carotene administration of the proportion of micronucleated buccal mucosal cells in Asian betel nut and tobacco chewers.Lancet 1984a;II: 1204–6.
Stich HF, Stich W, Rosin MP, Vallejera MO. Use of the micronucleus test to monitor the effect of vitamin A, beta-carotene and canthaxanthin on the buccal mucosa of betel nut/tobacco chewers.Int J Cancer 1986;34: 745–50.
Willett WC, MacMahon B. Diet and cancer—an overview.N Engl J Med 1984;310: 633–8.
Chen LH, Boissonneault GA, Glauert HP. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and cancer (Review).Anticancer Res 1988;8: 739–48.
Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Diet and lung cancer. A review of the epidemiologic evidence in humans.Arch Intern Med 1987;147: 157–60.
Block G. Vitamin C and cancer prevention: the epidemiologic evidence.Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53: 270S-82S.
Cameron E, Pauling L.Cancer and Vitamin C. Palo Alto, California: Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine, 1979.
O'Connor HJ, Habibzedah N, Schorah CJ, Axon AT, Riley SE, Gamer RC. Effect of increased intake of vitamin C on the mutagenic activity of gastric juice and intragastric concentrations of ascorbic acid.Carcinogenesis 1985;6: 1175–6.
Willett WC. Selenium, vitamin E, fiber, and the incidence of human cancer: an epidemiologic perspective.Adv Exp Med Biol 1986;206: 27–34.
Fiala ES, Reddy BS, Weisburger JH. Naturally occurring anticarcinogenic substances in foodstuffs.Ann Rev Nutr 1985;5: 295–321.
Diplock AT. Antioxidant nutrients and disease prevention: an overview.Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53: 189S-93S.
Knekt P, Aromaa A, Maatela J, et al. Vitamin E and cancer prevention.Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53: 238S-6S.
MacGregor JT, Schlegel R, Wehr CM, Alperin P, Ames BN. Cytogenetic damage induced by folate deficiency in mice is enhanced by caffeine.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87: 9962–5.
Ip C. The chemopreventive role of selenium in carcinogenesis. Presented at the NCI workshop on ‘Strategies Needed to Develop Selenium Compounds for Cancer Preventive Agents, Bethesda, Maryland, 1985.
Milner JA. Dietary antioxidants and cancer.Contemporary Nutrition. Minneapolis MN: General Mills Nutrition Department, 1985: Vol. 10, No. 10.
Willett WC, MacMahon B. Diet and cancer—an overview.N Engl J Med 1984;310: 697–703.
Knekt P, Aromaa A, Maatela J, et al. Serum selenium and subsequent risk of cancer among Finnish men and women.JNCI 1990;82: 864–8.
Jacobs LR. Fiber and colon cancer.Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1988;17: 747–60.
Potter JD. The epidemiology of fiber and colorectal cancer: why don't the epidemiologic data make better sense? In: Kritchevsky D, Bonfield C, Anderson JW, eds.Dietary Fiber. New York: Plenum Press, 1990: 431–46.
Trock B, Lanza E, Grennwald P. Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analyses of the epidemiologic evidence.JNCI 1990;82: 650–61.
Greenwald P, Lanza E. Dietary fiber and colon cancer. InContemporary Nutrition. Minneapolis, MN: General Mills Nutrition Department, 1986: Vol. 11, No. 1.
Greenwald P, Lanza E, Eddy GA. Dietary fiber in the reduction of colon cancer risk.J Am Dietetic Assoc 1987;87: 1178–88.
Pilch SM, ed.Physiological Effects and Health Consequences of Dietary Fiber. Bethesda, Maryland: Life Sciences Research Office, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 1987.
Lanza E, Butrum RR. A critical review of food fiber analysis and data.J Am Dietetic Assoc 1986;86: 732–40.
Howe GR,et al. Dietary intake of fibre and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies. Submitted for publication, 1991.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women.N Engl J Med 1990;323: 1664–72.
Bueding E, Ansher S, Dolan P. Anticarcinogenic and other protective effects of dithiolthiones. In:Basic Life Sciences. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1986:Vol. 39: 483–9.
Kensler TW, Egner PA, Trush MA, Bueding E, Groopman JD. Modification of aflatoxin B binding to DNA in vivo in rats fed phenolic antioxidants, ethoxyquin, and a diothiolthione.Carcinogenesis 1985;6: 759–63.
Kensler TW, Egner PA, Dolan PM, Groopman JD, Roebuk BD. Mechanisms of protection against aflatoxin tumorigenicity in rats fed 5-(2-pyrazinyl)-4-methyl-1,2-dithiol-3-thione (oltipraz) and related 1,2-dithiol-3-thiones and 1,2-dithiol-3-ones.Cancer Res 1987;47: 4271–7.
Stohs SJ, Lawson TA, Anderson L, Beuding E. Effects of oltipraz, BHA, ADT, and cabbage on glutathione metabolism, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in old mice.Mech Ageing Development 1986;37: 137–45.
Hocman G. Prevention of cancer: vegetables and plants.Comp Biochem Physiol 1989;93: 201–12.
Bailey GS, Hendricks JD, Shelton DW, Nixon JE, Pawlowski NE. Enhancement of carcinogenesis by the natural anticarcinogen indole-3-carbinol.JNCI 1987;78: 931–4.
Wattenberg LW, Hanley AB, Barany G, Sparnins VL, Lam LKT, Fenwick GR. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by some minor dietary constituents. In: Hayashi Y, ed.Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer. Tokyo: Japan Sci. Soc. Press, 1986: 193–203.
Loub WD, Wattenberg LW, Davis DW. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction in rat tissues by naturally occurring indoles of cruciferous plants.JNCI 1975;54: 985–8.
Salbe AD, Bjeldanes LF. Effects of Brussels sprouts, indole-3-carbinol andin vivo DNA binding of aflatoxin B1 in the rat.Fed Proc 1986;45: 970.
Carr BI. Chemical carcinogens and inhibitors of carcinogenesis in the human diet.Cancer 1985;55(Suppl. 1): 218–24.
Michnovicz JJ, Bradlow HL. Induction of estradiol metabolism by dietary indole-3-carbinol in humans.JNCI 1990;82: 947–9.
Michnovicz JJ, Hershcopf RJ, Naganuma H, Bradlow HL, Fishman J. Increased 2-hydroxylation of estradiol as a possible mechanism for the anti-estrogenic effect of cigarette smoking.N Engl J Med 1986;315: 1305–9.
Michnovicz JJ, Naganuma H, Hershcopf RJ, Bradlow HL, Fishman J. Increased urinary catechol estrogen excretion in female smokers.Steroids 1988;52: 69–83.
Schneider J, Bradlow HL, Strain G, Levin J. Effects of obesity on estradiol metabolism: decreased formation of nonuterotrophic metabolites.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983;56: 973–8.
Bradlow HL, Hershcopf RJ, Martucci CP, Fishman J. Estradiol 16 alpha-hydroxylation in the mouse correlates with mammary tumor incidence and presence of murine mammary tumor virus: a possible model for the hormonal etiology of breast cancer in humans.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985;82: 6295–9.
Bradlow HL, Hershcopf R, Martucci C, Fishman J. 16 alpha-hydroxylation of estradiol; a possible risk marker for breast cancer.Ann N Y Acad Sci 1986;464: 138–51.
Fishman J, Schneider J, Hershcope RJ, Bradlow HL. Increased estrogen-16 alpha-hydroxylase activity in women with breast and endometrial cancer.J Steroid Biochem 1984;20: 1077–81.
Wattenberg LW, Loub WD. Inhibition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced neoplasia by naturally occurring indoles.Cancer Res 1978;38: 1410–3.
Morse MA, Wang CX, Amin SG, Hecht SS, Chung FL. Effects of dictary sinigrin or indole-3-carbinol on O6-methylguanine-DNA-transmethylase activity and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induced DNA methylation and tumorigenicity in F344 rats.Carcinogenesis 1988;9: 1891–5.
Dashwood RH, Arbogast DN, Fong AT, Pereira C, Henricks JD, Bailey GS. Quantitative interrelationships between aflatoxin B1 carcinogen dose, indole-3-carbinol anti-carcinogen dose, target organ DNA adduction and final tumor response.Carcinogenesis 1989;10: 175–81.
Wattenberg LW. Inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis.JNCI 1987;60: 11–8.
Wattenberg LW. Inhibition of carcinogenic effects of polycyclic hydrocarbons by benzyl isothiocyanate and related compounds.JNCI 1977;58: 195–8.
Wattenberg LW. Inhibition of carcinogen-induced neoplasias by sodium cyanate, tert-butyl isocyanate, and benzyl isothiocyanate administered subsequent to carcinogen exposure.Cancer Res 1981;41: 2991–4.
Wattenberg LW. Inhibitory effects of benzyl isothiocyanate administered shortly before diethylnitrosamine or benzo[a]pyrene on pulmonary and forestomach neoplasia in A/J mice.Carcinogenesis 1987;8: 1971–3.
Morse MA, Wang C, Stoner GD, et al. Inhibition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced DNA adduct formation and tumorigenicity in the lung of F344 rats by dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate.Cancer Res 1989;49: 549–53.
Sparnins VL, Venegas PL, Wattenberg LW. Glutathione S-transferase activity: enhancement by compounds inhibiting chemical carcinogenesis and by dietary constituents.JNCI 1982;68: 493–6.
Herrmann K. Flavonols and flavones in food plants: a review.J Food Tech 1976;11: 433–8.
Brown JP. A review of the genetic effects of naturally occurring flavonoids, anthraquinones and related compounds.Mutation Res 1980;75: 243–77.
Jansen JD. Nutrition and cancer.World Rev Nutr Diet 1982;39: 1–22.
Friedman M, Smith GA. Factors which facilitate inactivation of quereetin mutagenicity.Adv Exp Med 1984;177: 527–44.
Stich HF, Rosin MP. Naturally occurring phenolics as antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic agents.Adv Exp Med 1984;177: 1–29.
Herrmann K. The phenolics of fruits. I. Our knowledge of occurrence and concentrations of fruit phenolics and of their variations in the growing fruit.Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel—Untersuchung und Forschung 1973;151: 41–51.
Singleton V. Department of Enology, University of California, Davis, CA. Personal communication, 18 April 1991.
Richardson M. The proteinase inhibitors of plants and micro-organisms.Phytochemistry 1977; 159–69.
Schelp FP, Pongpaew P. Protection against cancer through nutritionally-induced increase of endogenous protease inhibitors—a hypothesis.Int J Epidemiol 1988;17: 287–92.
Raicht RF, Cohen BI, Fazzini EP, Sarwal AN, Takahashi M. Protective effect of plant sterols against chemically induced colon tumors in rats.Cancer Res 1980;40: 403–5.
Messina M, Barnes S. The role of soy products in reducing risk of cancer.JNCI 1991;83: 541–6.
Messina M, Messina V. Increasing use of soyfoods and their potential role in cancer prevention.J Am Dietetic Assoc 1991;91: 836–40.
Adlercreutz H. Western diet and western diseases: some hormonal and biochemical mechanisms and associations.Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1990;50 Suppl 201: 3–23.
Oakenfull D, Sidhu GS. Saponins. In: Cheeke PR, ed.,Toxicants of Plant Origin. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1989.
You WC, Blot WJ, Chang YS, et al. Allium vegetables and the reduced risk of stomach cancer.JNCI 1989;81: 162–4.
Wargovich MJ, Woods C, Eng VWS, Stephens LC, Gray K. Chemoprevention of N-nitrosomethyl-benzylamine-induced esophageal cancer in rats by the naturally occurring thioether, diallyl sulfide.Cancer Res 1988;48: 6872–5.
Wattenberg LW. Inhibition of neoplasia by minor dietary constituents.Cancer Res 198343(Suppl): 2448s-53s.
Pariza MW. Calories and energy expenditure in carcinogenesis. In:Contemporary Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN: General Mills Nutrition Department, 1986, Vol. 11, No. 4.
Stoltz DR, Stavrie B, Stapley R, Klassen R, Bendall R, Krewski D. Mutagenicity screening of foods. II. Results with fruits and vegetables.Environ Mutag 1984;6: 343–54.
Newell GR: Nutrition and the etiology of cancer.Prim Care 1982;9: 573–80.
Mirvish SS. Effects of vitamins C and E on N-nitroso compound formation, carcinogenesis, and cancer.Cancer 1986;58 (Suppl 8): 1842–50.
Nomura A. Stomach cancer. In: Shottenfeld and Fraumeni, eds.Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company, 1982.
Alderson M. The causes of cancer. In: Alderson M, ed.The Prevention of Cancer. London: Edward Arnold, 1982: 20–79.
Oshima H, Bartsch H. Quantitative estimation of endogenous nitrosation in humans by monitoring N-nitrosoproline excreted in the urine.Cancer Res 1981;41: 3658–62.
Li J, Ershow AG, Chen Z, Wacholder S, Li G, Guo W, Li B, Blot WJ. A case-control study of cancer of the esophagus and gastric cardia in Linxian.Int J Cancer 1989;43: 755–61.
Nagai M, Hashimoto T, Yanagawa H, Yokoyama H, Minowa M. Relationship of diet to the incidence of esophageal and stomach cancer in Japan.Nutr Cancer 1982;3: 257–68.
Tajima K, Tominaga S. Dietary habits and gastro-intestinal cancers: a comparative case-control study of stomach and large intestinal cancers in Nagoya, Japan.Jpn J Cancer Res 1985;76: 705–16.
Haenszel W, Kurihara M, Locke FB, Shimuzu K, Segi M. Stomach cancer in Japan.JNCI 1976a;56: 265–74.
Hu J, Zhang S, Jia E, Wang Q, Liu Y, Wu Y, Cheng Y. Diet and cancer of the stomach: a case-control study in China.Int J Cancer 1988;41: 331–5.
Chang-Claude JC, Wahrendorf J, Liang QS, et al. An epidemiological study of precursor lesions of esophageal cancer among young persons in a high-risk population in Huixian, China.Cancer Res 1990;50: 2268–74.
Ames BN, Gold LS. Pesticides, risk, and applesauce.Science 1989;244: 755–7.
Ames BN, Magaw R, Gold LS. Ranking possible carcinogenic hazards.Science 1987;236: 271–6.
Groth E. Alar in apples.Science 1989;244: 755.
Fenwick GR, Heaney RK, Mullen WJ. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in foods and food plants.CRC Crit Rev Sci Nutr 1983;18: 123–201.
Franceschi S, Talamini R, Fassina A, Bidoli E. Diet and epithelial cancer of the thyroid gland.Tumori 1990;76: 331–8.
Potter JD, Graves KL. Diet and cancer: evidence and mechanisms—an adaptation argument. In: Rowland I, ed.Nutrition, Toxicology and Cancer. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1991.
Potter JD. The epidemiology of diet and cancer: evidence of human maladaptation. In: Moon TE, Micozzi MS, eds.Nutrition and Cancer Prevention. Investigating the Role of Macronutrients. New York, NY: Dekker, 1991, in press.