, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 337-344

Second primary cancers following cancers of the kidney and prostate in New South Wales (Australia), 1972–91

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Data from the New South Wales (NSW) (Australia) Central Cancer Registry for the period 1972–91 were examined to determine the risk of second primary cancers following an initial invasive cancer of the renal parenchyma (ICD-9 code 189.0), renal pelvis (code 189.1), or prostate (code 185). Eligible cases were restricted to those who had survived for at least two months after diagnosis of the first primary cancer. Expected numbers of cancers were obtained by assuming that subjects experienced the same cancer incidence as prevailed in the corresponding general population and applying gender-, age-, and calendar-specific rates to the appropriate person-years at risk. The relative risk (RR) of a second primary cancer was taken to be the ratio of observed to expected numbers of second cancers. Following prostatic cancer, there was an overall deficit of cancers at all sites combined (RR=0.79, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.75–0.84), and no site had a significantly raised RR. Taking this into consideration, there appeared to be a reciprocal relationship of increased risk of prostatic cancer (RR=1.7, CI=1.2–2.3) following an initial cancer of the renal parenchyma and of renal parenchymal cancer (RR=1.2, CI=0.8–1.7) after cancer of the prostate. An increased risk of bladder cancer occurred following renal parenchymal (RR=3.4, CI=1.1–8.0, for women only) as well as after renal pelvic cancer (men:RR=8.7, CI=5.4–13; women:RR=39, CI=26–56). A tobacco-related pattern of excess risk was seen after renal pelvic cancer but not after cancer of the renal parenchyma. These data illustrate that an excess of second primary cancers may reflect shared etiologic factors or increased medical surveillance.

Dr McCredie and Ms Coates are with the New South Wales Cancer Council in the Cancer Epidemiology Research Unit (Dr McCredie) and NSW Central Cancer Registry (Ms Coates). Dr Stewart is with the Western Clinical School, University of Sydney, Australia. Dr Macfarlane is with the ARC Epidemiology Unit, University of Manchester, UK. Address correspondence to Dr McCredie, Cancer Epidemiology Research Unit, NSW Cancer Council, PO Box 572, Kings Cross 2011, New South Wales, Australia.