Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gazdar AF, Bunn PA, Minna JD, Gallo RC. Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980; 77: 7415–9.
Takatsuki K, Uchiyama T, Sagawa K, Yodoi J. Adult T cell leukemia in Japan. In: Seno S, Takaku F, Irino S, eds. Topics in Hematology. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1977: 73–7.
Miyoshi I, Kubonishi I, Sumida M, et al. A novel T-cell line derived from adult T-cell leukemia. Gann 1980; 71: 155–6.
Yoshida M, Miyoshi I, Hinuma Y. Isolation and characterization of retrovirus from cell lines of human adult T-cell leukemia and its implication in the disease. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 2031–5.
Miyoshi I, Kubonishi I, Yoshimoto S, et al. Type C virus particles in a cord T-cell line derived by co-cultivating normal human cord leukocytes and human leukaemic T-cells. Nature 1981; 294: 770–1.
Gallo RC, Kalyanaraman VS, Sarngadharan MG, et al. Association of the human type C retrovirus with a subset of adult T-cell cancers. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 3892–9.
Watanabe T, Seiki M, Yoshida M. ATLV (Japanese isolate) and HTLV type (US isolate) are the same strain of virus. Virology 1984; 133: 238–41.
Seiki M, Hattori S, Hirayma Y, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus: Complete nucleotide sequence of the provirus genome integrated in leukemia cell DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985; 80: 3618–22.
Lee TH, Coligan JE, Sodrowski JG, et al. Antigens encoded by the 3′ terminal region of human T-cell leukemia virus: Evidence for a functional gene. Science 1984; 225: 57–61.
Sodrowski JG, Rosen CA, Haseltine WA. Trans-acting transcriptional activation of the long terminal repeat of human T-lymphotropic viruses in infected cells. Science 1984; 225: 381–5.
Greene WC, Bohnlein E, Ballard DW. HIV-1, HTLV-1 and normal T-cell growth: Transcriptional strategies and surprises. Immunol Today 1989; 10: 272–8.
Nimer SD, Gasson JC, Hu K, et al. Activation of the GM-CSF promoter by HTLV-I and-II tax proteins. Oncogene 1989; 4: 671–6.
Jeang K-T, Widden SG, Semmes OJIV, Wilson SH. HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a transrepressor of the human β-polymerase gene. Science 1990; 247: 1082–4.
Inoue J, Yoshida M, Seiki M. Transcriptional (p40x) and post-transcriptional (p27x-III) regulators are required for the expression and replication of human T-cell leukemia virus type I genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 3653–7.
Schneider J, Yamamoto N, Hinuma Y, Hunsmann G. Sera from adult T-cell leukemia patients react with envelope and core polypeptides of adult T-cell leukemia virus. Virology 1984; 132: 1–11.
Lee TH, Coligan JE, Homma T, McLane MF, Tachibana N, Essex M. Human T-cell leukemia virus-associated membrane antigens: Identity of the major antigens recognized after virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1984; 81: 3856–60.
Rosenblatt JD, Chen ISY, Wachsman W. Infection with HTLV-I and HTLV-II: Evolving concepts. Sem Hematol 1988; 25: 230–46.
Kalyanaraman VS, Sarngadharan MG, Robert-Guroff M, et al. A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia. Science 1982; 218: 571–3.
Rosenblatt JD, Golde DW, Wachsman W, et al. A second isolate of HTLV-II associated with atypical hairy-cell leukemia. New Engl J Med 1986; 315: 372–7.
Nerurkar LS, Gallo RC. Human retroviruses: Cancer and AIDS. Int J Cancer Suppl 1989; 4: 2–5.
Lee TH, Coligan JE, McLane MF, et al. Serological cross-reactivity between envelope gene products of type I and type II human T-cell leukemia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1984; 81: 7579–83.
Blattner WA. Human T-lymphotrophic viruses and diseases of long latency. Ann Int Med 1989; 111: 4–6.
Seiki M, Watanabe T, Komuro A, Miyoshi I, Hayami M, Yoshida M. Characterization of simian retrovirus genome related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. In: Miwa M, Sugano H, Sugimura T, Weiss RA, eds. Retroviruses in Human Lymphoma/Leukemia. Tokyo: Japan Sci Soc Press, 1985: 241–9.
Miyoshi I, Yoshimoto S, Fujishita M, et al. Natural adult T-cell leukaemia virus infection in Japanese monkeys. Lancet 1982; ii: 658.
Hunsmann G, Schneider J, Schmitt J, Yamamoto N. Detection of serum antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia virus in non-human primates and in people in Africa. Int J Cancer 1983; 32: 329–32.
Miyoshi I, Fujishita M, Taguchi H, Matsubayashi K, Miwa N, Tanioka Y. Natural infection in non-human primates with adult T-cell leukemia virus or a closely related agent. Int J Cancer 1983; 32: 333–6.
Hayami M, Komuro A, Nozawa K, et al. Prevalence of antibody to adult T-cell leukemia virus-associated antigens (ATLA) in Japanese monkeys and other non-human primates. Int J Cancer 1984; 33: 179–83.
Homma T, Kanki PJ, King NWJr, et al. Lymphoma in macaques: Association with virus of human T lymphotrophic family. Science 1984; 225: 716–8.
Tsujimoto H, Seiki M, Nakamura H, et al. Adult T-cell leukemia-like disease in monkey naturally infected with simian retrovirus related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. Jpn J Cancer Res 1985; 76: 911–4.
Hinuma Y, Komoda H, Chosa T, et al. Antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia-virus-associated antigen (ATLA) in sera from patients with ATL and controls in Japan: A nation-wide sero-epidemiologic study. Int J Cancer 1982; 29: 631–5.
Tajima K, Tominaga S, Suchi T, et al. Epidemiologic analysis of the distribution of antibody to adult T-cell leukemia-virus-associated antigen: Possible horizontal transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus. Gann 1982; 73: 893–901.
Robert-Guroff M, Kalyanaraman VS, Blattner WA, et al. Evidence for human T-cell lymphoma-leukemia virus infection in family members of human T-cell lymphoma-leukemia positive T-cell leukemia-lymphoma patients. J Exp Med 1983; 157: 248–58.
Maeda Y, Furukawa M, Takehara Y, et al. Prevalence of possible adult T-cell leukemia virus-carriers among volunteer blood donors in Japan: A nation-wide study. Int J Cancer 1984; 33: 717–20.
Aoki T, Miyakoshi H, Koide H, et al. Seroepidemiology of human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type I (HTLV-I) in residents of Nigata prefecture, Japan. Comparative studies by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Int J Cancer 1985; 35: 301–6.
Clark JW, Robert-Guroff M, Ikehara O, Henzan E, Blattner WA. Human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus type I and adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in Okinawa. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 2849–52.
Takatsuki K, Yamaguchi K, Kawano F, et al. Clinical aspects of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). In: Miwa M, Sugano H, Sugimura T, Weiss RA, eds. Retroviruses in Human Lymphoma/Leukemia. Tokyo: Japan Sci Soc Press, 1985: 51–7.
Tajima K, Tominago S, Suchi T, Fukui K, Komoda H, Hinuma Y. HTLV-I carriers among migrants from an ATL-endemic area to ATL non-endemic metropolitan areas in Japan. Int J Cancer 1986; 37: 383–7.
Kohakura M, Nakada K, Yonahara M, Komoda H, Imai J, Hinuma Y. Seroepidemiology of the human retrovirus (HTLV/ATLV) in Okinawa where adult T-cell leukemia is highly endemic. Jpn J Cancer Res 1986; 77: 21–3.
Tajima K, Kamura S, Ito S-i, et al. Epidemiological features of HTLV-I carriers and incidence of ATL in an ATL-endemic island: A report of the community-based cooperative study in Tsushima, Japan. Int J Cancer 1987; 40: 741–6.
Hanada S, Uematsu T, Iwahashi M, et al. The prevalence of human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection in patients with hematologic and nonhematologic diseases in an adult T-cell leukemia-endemic area of Japan. Cancer 1989; 64: 1290–5.
Kosaka M, Iishi Y, Horiuchi N, et al. A cluster of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I carriers found in the southern district of Tokushima prefecture. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1989; 19: 30–5.
Stuver SO, Tachibana N, Okayama A, Romano F, Yokota T, Mueller N. Determinants of HTLV-I seroprevalence in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan: A cross-sectional study (submitted for publication).
Ishida T, Yamamoto K, Omoto K, Iwanaga M, Osato T, Hinuma Y. Prevalence of a human retrovirus in native Japanese: Evidence for a possible ancient origin. J Infection 1985; 11: 153–7.
Zeng Y, Lan XY, Fang J, et al. HTLV antibody in China. Lancet 1984; i: 799–800.
Kuo T-t, Chan H-L, Su I-J, et al. Serological survey of antibodies to the adult T-cell leukemia virus-associated antigen (HTLV-A) in Taiwan. Int J Cancer 1985; 36: 345–8.
Kurimura T, Tsuchie H, Kobayashi S, et al. Sporadic cases of carriers of human T-lymphotropic virus type I in southeast Asia. Japan J Med Sci Biol 1986; 39: 25–8.
Lee SY, Yamaguchi K, Takatsuki K, Kim BK, Park SL, Lee M. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell leukemia virus type-I in the Republic of Korea. Jpn J Cancer Res 1986; 77: 250–4.
Ishida T, Yamamoto K, Omoto K. A seroepidemiological survey of HTLV-1 in the Philippines. Int J Epidemiol 1988; 17: 625–8.
Levine PH, Blattner WA, Clark J, et al. Geographic distribution of HTLV-I and identification of a new high-risk population. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 7–12.
Clark J, Saxinger C, Gibbs WN, et al. Seroepidemiologic studies of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I in Jamaica. Int J Cancer 1985; 36: 37–41.
Murphy EL, Hanchard B, Figueroa JP, et al. Modeling the risk of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in persons infected with human lymphotropic virus type I. Int J Cancer 1989; 43: 250–3.
Miller GJ, Pegram SM, Kirkwood BR, et al. Ethnic composition, age and sex, together with location and standard of living as determinants of HTLV-I infection in an urban Trinidadian communty. Int J Cancer 1986; 38: 801–8.
Cleghorn FR, Charles W, Blattner W, Bartholomew C. Adult T-cell leukemia in Trinidad and Tobago. In: Blattner WA, ed. Human Retrovirology: HTLV. New York: Raven Press, Ltd, 1990: 185–90.
Calender A, Gessain A, Essex M, de-Thé G. Seroepidemiology of HTLV in the French West Indies: Antibodies in blood donors and lymphoproliferative diseases who do not have AIDS. In: Selikoff IJ, Teirstein AS, Hirschman SZ, eds. Proceedings of the Conference on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Ann NY Acad Sci 1984; 437: 175–6.
Riedel DA, Evans AS, Saxinger C, Blattner WA. A historical study of human T-lymphotropic virus I transmission in Barbados. J Infect Dis 1989; 159: 603–9.
de-Thé G, Gessain A, Robert-Guroff M, et al. Comparative seroepidemiology of HTLV-I and HTLV-III in French West Indies and some African countries. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 4633s-6s.
Kaplan JE, Yamamura Y, Rios-Olivares EO, et al. Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in Puerto Rico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1989; 40: 659–62.
Catovsky D, Greaves MF, Rose M, et al. Adult T-cell lymphoma-leukemia in blacks from the West Indies. Lancet 1982; i: 639–43.
Maloney EM, Ramirez H, Levin A, Blattner WA. A survey of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in south-western Colombia. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 419–23.
Andrada-Serpa MJ, Tosswill J, Schor D, Linhares D, Dobbin J, Pereifa M. Seroepidemiologic survey for antibodies to human retroviruses in human and non-human primates in Brazil. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 389–93.
Reeves WC. The epidemiology of human T-lymphotropic virus type I in Panama. In: Blattner WA, ed. Human Retrovirology: HTLV. New York: Raven Press, Ltd, 1990: 385–90.
Lairmore MD, Jacobson S, Kaplan JE, et al. Identification of HTLV-II infection in Guaymi Indians from Panama. Abstract. Third Annual Retrovirology Conference, Hawaii, February, 1990.
Hunsmann G, Bayer H, Schneider J, et al. Antibodies to ATLV/HTLV-1 in Africa. Med Microbiol Immunol 1984; 173: 167–70.
Delaport E, Dupont A, Peeters M, et al. Epidemiology of HTLV-I in Gabon (western equatorial Africa). Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 687–9.
Delaport E, Peeters M, Durand J-P, et al. Seroepidemiological survey of HTLV-I infection among randomized populations of western central African countries. JAIDS 1989; 2: 410–3.
Verdier M, Denis F, Sangaré A, et al. Prevalence of antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) in populations of Ivory Coast, west Africa. J Infect Dis 1989; 160: 363–70.
Ouattara SA, Gody M, de-Thé G. Prevalence of HTLV-I compared to HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies in different groups in the Ivory Coast (west Africa). JAIDS 1989; 2: 481–5.
Fleming AF, Maharajan R, Abraham M, et al. Antibodies to HTLV-I in Nigerian blood donors, their relatives and patients with leukemias, lymphomas and other diseases. Int J Cancer 1986; 38: 809–13.
Kazura JW, Saxinger WC, Wenger J, et al. Epidemiology of human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection in East Sepik Province, Papau, New Guinea. J Infect Dis 1987; 155: 1100–7.
Babona DV, Nurse GT. HTLV-I antibodies in Papua, New Guinea (Letter). Lancet 1988; ii: 1148.
Constantine NT, Fox E. Need to confirm HTLV-I screening assays (Letter). Lancet 1989; i: 108–9.
Currie B, Hinuma Y, Imai J, Cumming S, Doherty R. HTLV-I antibodies in Papua New Guinea (Letter). Lancet 1989; i: 1137.
Weber JN, Banatvala N, Clayden S, et al. HTLV-I infection in Papua New Guinea: Evidence for serologic false positivity. J Infect Dis 1989; 159: 1025–8.
Brabin L, Brabin BJ, Doherty RR, et al. Patterns of migration indicate sexual transmission of HTLV-I infection in non-pregnant women in Papua, New Guinea. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 59–62.
Armstrong MYK, Hardy DB, Carlson JR, Friedlaender JS. Prevalence of antibodies interactive with HTLV-I antigens in selected Solomon Islands populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 1990; 81: 465–70.
May JP, Stent G, Schnagl RD. Antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I in Australian Aborigines. Med J Australia 1988; 149: 104.
Blattner WA, Nomura A, Clark JW, et al. Modes of transmission and evidence for viral latency from studies of HTLV-I in Japanese migrant populations in Hawaii. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83: 4895–8.
Blayney DW, Blattner WA, Robert-Guroff M, et al. The human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus in the southeastern United States. JAMA 1983; 250: 1048–52.
Dosik H, Denic S, Patel N, Krishnamurthy M, Levine PH, Clark JW. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Brooklyn. JAMA 1988; 259: 2255–7.
Weinberg JB, Blazey DL, Matthews TJ, et al. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection—North Carolina. MMWR 1987; 36: 804–5.
Robert-Guroff M, Weiss SH, Giron JA, et al. Prevalence to antibodies to HTLV-I,-II, and-III in intravenous drug abusers from an AIDS endemic region. JAMA 1986; 255: 3133–7.
Vlahov D, Lee H, Taylor E, et al. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type I/II (HTLV-I/II) among male inmates entering Maryland prisons. JAIDS 1990; 3: 531–5.
Lee H, Swanson P, Shorly VS, Zack JA, Rosenblatt JD, Chen ISY. High rate of HTLV-II infection in seropositive IV drug abusers in New Orleans. Science 1989; 244: 471–5.
Hall WW, Kaplan MH, Salahuddin SZ, et al. Concomitant infections with human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Identification of HTLV-II infection in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs). In: Blattner WA, ed. Human Retrovirology: HTLV. New York: Raven Press, Ltd, 1990: 115–27.
Wiktor SZ, Alexander SS, Shaw GM, et al. Distringuishing between HTLV-I and HTLV-II by western blot (Letter). Lancet 1990; 335: 1533.
Robert-Guroff M, Clark J, Lanier AP, et al. Prevalence of HTLV-I in Arctic regions. Int J Cancer 1985; 36: 651–5.
Biggar RJ, Gigase PL, Melbye M, et al. ELISA HTLV retrovirus reactivity associated with malaria and immune complexes in healthy Africans. Lancet 1985; ii: 520–3.
Schüpbach J, Baumgartner A, Tomasik Z. HTLV-I in Switzerland: Low prevalence of specific antibodies in HIV risk groups, high prevalence of cross-reactive antibodies in normal blood donors. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 857–62.
Gallo RC, Sliski A, Wong-Staal F. Origin of human T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma virus. Lancet 1983; ii: 962–3.
Gallo RC, Sliski AH, de Noronha CMC, de Noronha F. Origins of human T-lymphotropic viruses. Nature 1986; 320: 219.
Hino S, Kinoshita K, Kitamura T. HTLV and the propagation of Christianity in Nagasaki. Lancet 1984; ii: 572–3.
Taguchi H. Origin of HTLV-I virus in Japan (Letter). Nature 1986; 323: 764.
Zaninovic V, Zamora T, Tajima K. Origins of T-cell leukaemia virus (Letter). Nature 1990; 344: 299.
Shuver S, Tachibana N, Mueller N, et al. Risk factors for HTLV-1 infection in southwestern Japan: A case—control study in a village in Miyazaki Prefecture. Abstract. Third Annual Retrovirology Conference, Hawaii, February, 1990.
Mueller N, Tachibana N, Stuver SO, et al. Epidemiologic perspectives of HTLV-I. In Blattner WA, ed. Human Retrovirology: HTLV. New York: Raven Press, Ltd, 1990: 281–93.
Blattner WA. Epidemiology of HTLV-I and associated diseases. In Blattner WA, ed. Human Retrovirology: HTLV. New York: Raven Press, Ltd, 1990: 251–65.
Kusuhata K, Sonoda S, Takahashi K, Tokugawa K, Fukushige J, Ueda K. Mother-to-child transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I): a fifteen-year follow-up study in Okinawa, Japan. Int J Cancer 1987; 40: 755–7.
Ueda K, Kusuhara K, Tokugawa K, et al. Cohort effect of HTLV-I seroprevalence in southern Japan (Letter). Lancet 1989; ii: 979.
Miyamoto T, Hino S, Munehisa T. Seroepidemiological studies of antibody against antigens expressed on adult T-cell leukemia cells in Nagasaki area. In: Rich MA, ed. Leukemia Reviews International. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1983: 105–6.
Kashiwaga S, Kajiyama W, Hayashi J, Nomura H, Ikematsu H. No significant changes in adult T-cell leukemia virus infection in Okinawa after intervals of 13 and 15 years. Jpn J Cancer Res 1986; 77: 452–5.
Ichimaru M, Kinoshita K, Kamihara S, Ikeda S, Yamada Y, Amagasaki T. T-cell malignant lymphoma in Nagasaki district and its problems. Jap J Clin Oncol 1979; 9 (Suppl): 337–46.
Kajiyama W, Kashiwaga S, Ikematsu H, Hayashi J, Nomura H, Okochi K. Intrafamilial transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus. J Infect Dis 1986; 154: 851–7.
Kinoshita K, Hino S, Amagasaki T, et al. Demonstration of adult T-cell leukemia virus antigen in milk from three seropositive mothers. Gann 1984; 75: 103–5.
Nakano S, Ando Y, Ichijo M, et al. Search for possible route of vertical and horizontal transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus. Gann 1984; 75: 1044–5.
Hino S, Sugiyama H, Doi H, et al. Breaking the cycle of HTLV-I transmission via carrier mothers' milk. Lancet 1987; ii: 158–9.
Ando Y, Nakano S, Saito K, et al. Transmission of adult T-cell leukemia retrovirus (HTLV-I) from mother to child: Comparison of bottle- with breast-fed babies. Jpn J Cancer Res 1987; 78: 3224.
Kinoshita K, Amagasaki T, Hino S, et al. Milk-borne transmission of HTLV-I from carrier mothers to their children. Jpn J Cancer Res 1987; 78: 674–80.
Hino S, Doi H, Yoshikuni H, et al. HTLV-I carrier mothers with high-titer antibody are at high risk as a source of infection. Jpn J Cancer Res 1987; 78: 1156–8.
Sawada T, Tohmatsu J, Obara T, et al. High risk of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-I in p40tax antibody-negative mothers. Jpn J Cancer Res 1989; 80: 506–8.
Nakano S, Ando Y, Saito K, et al. Primary infection of Japanese infants with adult T-cell leukemia-associated retrovirus (ATLV): evidence for viral transmission from mothers to children. J Infection 1986; 12: 205–12.
Saito S, Ando Y, Furuki K, et al. Detection of HTLV-I genome in seronegative infants born to HTLV-I seropositive mothers by polymerase chain reaction. Jpn J Cancer Res 1989; 80: 808–12.
Tajima K, Ito S-i, and Tsushima ATL Study Group. Prospective studies of HTLV-I and associated disease in Japan. In Blattner WA, ed, Human Retrovirology: HTLV. New York: Raven Press, Ltd, 1990: 267–80.
Hino S. Maternal-infant transmission of HTLV-I: Implication for disease. In Blattner WA, ed. Human Retrovirology: HTLV. New York: Raven Press, Ltd, 1990: 363–76.
Okochi K, Sato H, Hinuma Y. A retrospective study on transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus by blood transfusion: Seroconversion in recipients. Vox Sang 1984; 46: 245–53.
Gout O, Baulac M, Gessain A, et al. Rapid development of myelopathy after HTLV-I infection acquired by transfusion during cardiac transplantation. New Engl J Med 1990; 322: 383–8.
Chen Y-MA, Okayama A, Lec T-H, Tachibana N, Mueller N, Essex M. Sexual transmission of HTLV-I associated with the presence of the anti-tax antibody. (Submitted for publication)
Goedert J, Eyster ME, Biggar RJ, Blattner WA. Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: Association with severe depletion of T-helper lymphocytes in men with hemophilia. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1987; 3: 355–61.
Okayama A, Ishizaki J, Tachibana N, Tsuda K, Essex M, Mueller N. The particle agglutination (PA) assay and its use in detecting lower titer HTLV-I antibodies. In Blattner WA, ed. Human Retrovirology: HTLV. New York: Raven Press, Ltd, 1990: 401–7.
Bartholomew C, Saxinger WC, Clark JW, et al. Transmission of HTLV-I and HIV among homosexual men in Trinidad. JAMA 1987; 257: 2604–8.
Khabbaz RF, Darrow WW, Hartley TM, et al. Seroprevalence and risk factors for HTLV-I/II infection among female prostitutes in the United States. JAMA 1990; 263: 60–4.
Murphy EL, Figueroa JP, Gibbs WN, et al. Sexual transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111: 555–60.
The T- and B-cell Malignancy Study Group. Statistical analysis of immunologic, clinical and histopathologic data on lymphoid malignancies in Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1981; 11: 15–38.
The T- and B-cell Malignancy Study Group. Statistical analyses of clinico-pathological, virological and epidemiological data on lymphoid malignancies with special reference to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: A report of the second nationwide study of Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1985; 15: 517–35.
The T- and B-cell Malignancy Study Group. The third nationwide study of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) in Japan: Characteristic patterns of HLA antigen and HTLV-I infection in ATL patients and their relatives. Int J Cancer 1988; 41: 505–12.
Tajima K, the T- and B-cell Malignancy Study Group and co-authors. The 4th nation-wide study of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) in Japan: Estimates of risk of ATL and its geographical and clinical features. Int J Cancer 1990; 45: 237–43.
Catovsky D, Greaves MF, Rose M, et al. Adult T-cell lymphoma-leukaemia in Blacks from the West Indies. Lancet 1982; i: 639–42.
Blattner WA, Kalyanaraman VS, Robert-Guroff M, et al. The human type-C retrovirus, HTLV, in Blacks from the Caribbean region, and relationship to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Int J Cancer 1982; 30: 257–64.
Blattner WA, Gibbs WN, Saxinger C, et al. Human T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus-associated lymphoreticular neoplasia in Jamaica. Lancet 1983; ii: 61–4.
Bunn PA, Schechter GP, Jaffe E, et al. Clinical course of retrovirus-associated adult T-cell lymphoma in the United States. New Engl J Med 1983; 309: 257–64.
Yoshida M, Kiyokawa T, Watanabe T, Hattori S, Fujisawa J-I, Seiki M. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I: Molecular biology and its implications in adult T-cell leukemia. In: Miwa M, Sugano H, Sugimura T, Weiss RA, eds. Retroviruses in Human Lymphoma/Leukemia. Tokyo: Japan Sci Soc Press, 1985: 39–47.
Matutes E, Robinson D, O'Brien M, Haynes BF, Zola H, Catovsky D. Candidate counterpart of Sezary cells and adult T-cell lymphoma-leukemia cells in normal peripheral blood: An ultrastructure study with the immunogold method and monoclonal antibodies. Leukemia Res 1983; 7: 787–801.
Matutes E, Dalgleish AG, Weiss RA, et al. Studies in healthy human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV-I) carriers from the Carbibbean. Int J Cancer 1986; 38: 41–5.
Noda Y, Ishikawa K-i, Sasagawa A, et al. Hematologic abnormalities similar to the preleukemic state of adult T-cell leukemia in African green monkeys naturally infected with simian T-cell leukemia virus. Jpn J Cancer Res 1986; 77: 1227–34.
Yamaguchi K, Nishima H, Kohrogi H, et al. A proposal for smoldering adult T-cell leukemia: A clinicopathologic study of five cases. Blood 1983; 62: 758–66.
Yamaguchi K, Kiyokawa T, Nakada K, et al. Polyclonal integration of HTLV-I provirus DNA in lymphocytes from HTLV-I seropositive individuals: An intermediate state between the healthy carrier state and smouldering ATL. Br J Haem 1988; 68: 169–74.
Kinoshita K, Amagasaki T, Ikeda S, et al. Preleukemia state of adult T-cell leukemia: Abnormal T lymphocytosis induced by human adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus. Blood 1985; 56: 120–7.
Nakada K, Yamaguchi K, Furugen S, et al. Monoclonal integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA in patients with strongyloidosis. Int J Cancer 1987; 40: 145–8.
Popovic M, Flomenberg N, Volkman DJ, et al. Alteration of T-cell functions by infection with HTLV-I or HTLV-II. Science 1984; 226: 459–62.
Shirakawa F, Tanaka Y, Oda S, et al. Immunosuppressive factors from adult T-cell leukemia cells. Cancer Res 1986; 46: 4458–62.
Tanaka Y, Shirakawa F, Oda S, et al. Effect of immunosuppressive factors produced by adult T cell leukemia cells on B cell responses. Jpn J Cancer Res 1987; 78: 1390–9.
Tachibana N, Okayama A, Ishizaki J, et al. Suppression of tuberculin skin reaction in healthy HTLV-I carriers from Japan. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 829–31.
Murai K, Tachibana N, Shioiri S, et al. Suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity to PPD and PHA in elderly HTLV-I carriers. JAIDS 1990; 3: 1006–9.
Imai J, Hinuma Y. Epstein-Barr virus-specific antibodies in patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and healthy ATL virus-carriers. Int J Cancer 1983; 31: 197–200.
Ho M, Miller G, Atchison RW, et al. Epstein-Barr virus infections and DNA hybridization studies in posttransplantational lymphoma and lymphoproliferative lesions: The role of primary infection. J Infect Dis 1985; 152: 876–86.
Schüpbach J, Kalyanaraman VS. Detection of high concentrations of HTLV-I p24 and a novel gag precursor, p45, in serum immune complexes of a healthy seropositive individual. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 90–4.
Kinoshita T, Shimoyama M, Tobinai K, et al. Detection of mRNA for the tax1/rex1 gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type I in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adult T-cell leukemia patients and viral carriers by using the polymerase chain reaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86: 5620–4.
Yokota T, Cho M-J, Tachibana N, et al. The prevalence of antibody to p42 of HTLV-I among ATLL patients in comparison with healthy carriers in Japan. Int J Cancer 1989; 43: 970–4.
Kamihira S, Toriya K, Amagasaki T, et al. Antibodies against p40tax gene product of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) under various conditions of HTLV-I infection. Jpn J Cancer Res 1989; 80: 1066–71.
Suetake N, Takeuchi Y, Shimizu N, Uesato H, Kuroume T, Hoshino H. Frequent lack of antibodies against human T-cell leukemia type I gag proteins p24 or p19 in sera of patients with adult T-cell leukemia. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1989; 115: 279–84.
Tajima K, Hinuma Y. Epidemiological features of adult T-cell leukemia virus. In: Mathe G, Rizenstein P, eds. Pathophysicological Aspects of Cancer Epidemiology. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1984: 75–87.
Kondo T, Kono H, Noraka et al. Risk of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in HTLV-I carriers. Lancet 1987; ii: 159.
Hino S. ATL development after adult infection of HTLV-I (Letter)? Jpn J Cancer Res 1989; 80: 1016.
Doll R. An epidemiologic perspective of the biology of cancer. Cancer Res 1978; 38: 3573–83.
Essex M, Gutensohn (Mueller) N. A comparison of the pathobiology and epidemiology of cancers associated with viruses in humans and animals. Prog Med Virol 1981; 27: 114–26.
Uno H, Kawano K, Matsuoka H, Tsuda K. HLA and adult T-cell leukaemia: HLA-linked genes controlling susceptibility to human T-cell leukaemia virus type I. Clin Exp Immunol 1988; 71: 211–5.
Gessain A, Barin F, Vernant JC, et al. Antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type-I in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis. Lancet 1985; ii: 407–10.
Rodgers-Johnson P, Gajdusek DC, Morgan OStC, Zaninovic V, Sarin PS, Graham DS. HTLV-I and HTLV-II antibodies and tropical spastic paraparesis. Lancet 1985; ii: 1247–8.
Osame M, Usuku K, Izumo S, et al. HTLV-I associated myelopathy, a new clinical entity. Lancet 1986; i: 1031–2.
Osame M, Igata A. The history of discovery and clinicoepidemiology of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). Jpn J Med 1989; 28: 412–4.
Roman GC, Osame M. Identity of HTLV-I-associated tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Lancet 1988; i: 651.
Osame M, Janssen R, Kubota H, et al. Nationwide survey of HTLV-I-associated myleopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in Japan: Association with blood transfusion. Ann Neurol 1990; 28: 50–9.
Yoshida M, Osame M, Usuku K, Matsumoto M, Igata A. Viruses detected in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and adult T-cell leukemia are identical on DNA blotting. Lancet 1987; i: 1085–6.
Imamura J, Tsujimoto A, Ohta Y, et al. DNA blotting analysis of human retroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of spastic paraparesis patients: The viruses are identical to human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I). Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 221–4.
Osame M, Matsumoto M, Usuku K, et al. Chronic progressive myelopathy associated with elevated antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type I and adult T-cell leukemia like cells. Ann Neurol 1987; 21: 117–22.
Greenberg SJ, Jacobson S, Waldmann TA, McFarlin DE. Molecular analysis of HTLV-I proviral integration and T-cell receptor arrangement indicates that T-cells in tropical spastic parapapresis are polyclonal. J Infect Dis 1989; 159: 741–4.
Gessain A, Saal F, Daniel S-T, et al. High human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I proviral DNA load with polyclonal integration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of French West Indian, Guianese, and African patients with tropical spastic paraparesis. Blood 1990; 75: 428–33.
Osame M, Igata A, Matsumoto M, Kohka M, Usuku K, Izumo S. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM): Treatment trials, retrospective survey and clinical and laboratory findings. Hematol Rev 1990; 3: 271–84.
Usuku K, Sonoda S, Osame M, et al. HLA haplotype-linked high immune responsiveness against HTLV-I in HTLV-I-associated myleopathy: Comparison with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Ann Neurol 1988; 23 (suppl): S143–50.
Osame M, Izumo S, Igata A, et al. Blood transfusion and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Lancet 1986; ii: 104.
Osame M, Igata A, Usuku K, Rosales RL, Matsumoto M. Mother-to-child transmission in HTLV-I associated myelopathy. Lancet 1987; i: 106.
Bartholomew C, Cleghorn F, Charles W, et al. HTLV-I and tropical spastic paraparesis. Lancet 1986; ii; 99–100.
Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 36-1989. New Engl J Med 1989; 321: 663-75.
Kawai H, Nishida Y, Takagi M, et al. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy with adult T-cell leukemia. Neurology 1989; 39: 1129–31.
Fleming AF, Yamamoto N, Bhusnurmath SR, Maharajan R, Schneider J, Hunsmann G. Antibodies to ATLV (HTLV) in Nigerian blood donors and patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia or lymphoma. Lancet 1983; ii: 334–5.
Clark JW, Hahn BH, Mann DL, et al. Molecular and immunologic analysis of a chronic lymphocytic leukemia case with antibodies against human T-cell leukemia virus. Cancer 1985; 56: 495–9.
Mann DL, DeSantis P, Mark G, et al. HTLV-I-associated B-cell CLL: Indirect role for retrovirus in leukemogenesis. Science 1987; 236: 1103–6.
Uematsu T, Hanada S, Nomura K, et al. The incidence of anti-ATLA (antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia-associated antigen) among hemodialysis patients in the Kagoshima district with specific reference to blood transfusions. J Jpn Soc Dial Ther 1986; 19: 757–62.
Hanada S, Uematsu T, Iwahashi M, et al. The prevalence of human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection in patients with hematologic and nonhematologic diseases in adult T-cell leukemia-endemic area of Japan. Cancer 1989; 64: 1290–5.
Lee SY, Matsushita K, Machida J, Tajiri M, Yamaguchi K, Takatsuki K. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection in hemodialysis patients. Cancer 1987; 60: 1474–8.
Miyoshi I, Yoshimoto S, Ohtsuki Y, et al. Adult T-cell-leukemia antigen in renal glomerulus. Lancet 1983; i: 768–9.
Morgan OStC, Rodgers-Johnson P, Mora C, Char G. HTLV-I and polymyositis in Jamaica. Lancet 1989; ii: 1184–7.
Nishioka K, Maruyama I, Sato K, Kitajima I, Nakajima Y, Osame M. Chronic inflammatory arthropathy associated with HTLV-I. Lancet 1989; i: 441.
Sugimoto M, Nakashima H, Watanabe S, et al. T-lymphocyte aveolitis in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (Letter). Lancet 1987; ii: 1220.
Matsushita S, Mitsuya H, Reitz MS, Broder S. Pharmacological inhibition of in vitro infectivity of human T lymphotropic virus type I. J Clin Invest 1987; 80: 394–400.
Waldmann TA. Multichain interleukin-2 receptor: A target for immunotherapy in lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81: 914–23.