, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 559-593

Transport of molecules across tumor vasculature

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Abstract

The vascular-extravascular exchange of fluid and solute molecules in a tissue is determined by three transport parameters (vascular permeability, P, hydraulic conductivity, Lp, and reflection coefficient, σ); the surface area for exchange, A; and the transluminal concentration and pressure gradients. The transport parameters and the exchange area for a given molecule are governed by the structure of the vessel wall. In general, tumor vessels have wide interendothelial junctions; large number of fenestrae and transendothelial channels formed by vesicles; and discontinuous or absent basement membrane. While these factors favor movement of molecules across tumor vessels, high interstitial pressure and low microvascular pressure may retard extravasation of molecules and cells, especially in large tumors. These characteristics of the transvascular transport have significant implications in tumor growth, metastasis, detection and treatment.