Ecology and dynamics of the woody vegetation on the Kalahari Sands in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The woody vegetation on Kalahari sand deposits in Hwange (ex-Wankie) National Park, Zimbabwe was classified into nine types on the basis of species composition. Ordination of the data showed that the types which occupy the ends of the major (soil-type) gradient are easily distinguishable, viz. well developed, mature Baikiaea plurijuga woodlands on deep sands, and scrub Terminalia sericea and mixed woodland on soils with a higher clay content or compact layer. The central groups of stands, involving mixed woodlands and scrub, were less easy to interpret, and previous logging disturbance is involved.
In the disturbed Baikiaea woodlands recruitment appears to be less than is required for long-term maintenance, even given that some of the measurements may have led to underestimates. Elephants were shown to have only a minor effect, and are relatively insignificant as agents of change in the woodlands. Depth of sand and soil moisture regime are the predominant factors determining overall vegetation structure. Fire is a dominant feature in scrub areas and interacts with frost, which has a periodic severe effect on developing saplings in scrub and in some disturbed woodlands. Although the relief is very flat there is a marked frost gradient from ‘ridge’ areas with mature woodland into the slightly lower-lying scrub areas. A conceptual model of the dynamics of the vegetation, based on the above features, is described.
- Bell R. H. V., 1982. The effect of soil nutrient availability on community structure in African ecosystems. In: B. J. Huntley & B. H. Walker (eds), Ecology of tropical savannas, Ecological Studies 42 pp. 193–216, Springer, Berlin.
- Bell R. H. V., 1984. Notes on elephant-woodland interactions. In: D. H. M. Cumming & P. Jackson (eds), The status and conservation of Africa's elephants and rhinos. Proceedings of the joint meeting of IUCN/SSC African elephant and African rhino specialist groups, 1981, Zimbabwe. pp. 98–103, IUCN, Gland.
- Bond G. & Fernandes T. R. C., 1974. Scanning electron microscopy applied to quartz grains from Kalahari type Sands. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 77: 191–199.
- Boughey A. S., 1963. Interaction between animals, vegetation and fire in Southern Rhodesia. Ohio J. Sci. 63: 193–209.
- Cumming, D. H. M., 1981. The management of elephant and other large mammals in Zimbabwe. In: P. A. Jewell, S. Holt & D. Hart (eds), Problems in the management of locally abundant wild mammals, pp. 91–118. Academic Press.
- De Swart A. M. I. & Bennett G., 1974. Structure and physiographic development of Natal since late Jurassic times. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 77: 309–322.
- Fanshawe D. B. & Savory B. M., 1964. Baikiaea plurijuga dwarfshell forests, Kirkia 4: 185–190.
- Fanshawe D. B., 1965. The vegetation of the Sesheke District. Research Pamphlet No. 16, 8 pp. Division of Forestry Research, Kitwe, Zambia.
- Farquarhar I. 1970. The effects of fire on Baikiaea plurijuga woodlands in the Gwaai Forest Reserve, Rhodesia. Certificate in Field Ecology Research Report, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
- Flint R. F. & Bond G., 1968. Pleistocene sand ridges and pans in western Rhodesia. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 79: 299–314.
- Gauch H. G., 1982. Multivariate analysis in community ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Hartshorn G. S., 1975. A matrix model of tree population dynamics. In: F. B. Golley & E. Medina (eds), Tropical ecological systems. pp. 41–51. Springer, New York.
- Heine K., 1982. The main stages of the late Quarternary evolution of the Kalahari dune systems in southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 48: 374–375.
- Lancaster, I. N. 1979. Quarternary environments in the arid zone of Southern Africa. University of the Witwatersrand. Dept. of Geogr. and Envir. Studies, Occ. Paper: 22–73.
- Lefkovitch L. P., 1976. The study of population growth of organisms grouped by stages. Biometrics 21: 1–18.
- Lockett, N., 1979. The geology of the country around Dett. Bull. Geol. Surv. Rhod. 85.
- Macvicar C. N. & Eloff J. F., 1980. Evidence of hydromorphy in some sands of the Kalahari. Agrochemophysica 12: 21–23.
- Martin J. D., 1932. The Mukushi (Baikiaea plurijuga Harms) forests of Northern Rhodesia. N. Rhod. Dep. Agric. Ann. Bull. 2: 71–76.
- Martin J. D., 1940. The Baikiaea forests of northern Rhodesia. Emp. For. Rev. 19: 8–19.
- Orlóci L., 1966. Geometric models in ecology. 1. The theory and application of some ordination methods. J. Ecol. 54(1) 193–215.
- Pienaar U. de V., 1985. Indications of the progressive desiccation of the Transvaal lowveld over the past 100 years, and implications for the water stabilization programme in the Kruger National Park. Koedoe 28: 93–165.
- Robertson, E. F., 1984. Regrowth of two African woodland types after shifting cultivation. PhD thesis, University of Aberdeen.
- Rushworth, J. E., 1975. The floristics, physiognomic and biomass structure of Kalahari sand shrub vegetation in relation to fire and frost in Wankie National Park, Rhodesia. MSc thesis. University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
- Skarpe C., 1986. Plant community structure in relation to grazing and environmental changes along a north-south transect in the western Kalahari. Vegetatio 68: 3–18.
- Sutton, E. R., 1979. The geology of the Mafungabusi area. Bull. Geol. Surv. Rhod. 81.
- Thomas D. S. G., 1984. Ancient ergs of the former arid zones of Zimbabwe, Zambia and Angola. Trans. Inst. Br. Geogr. 9: 75–88.
- Thompson J. G. & Purves W. D., 1978. A guide to the soils of Rhodesia. Rhod. agric. J. Technical Handbook No. 3. Information Services, Harrare Zimbabwe.
- Tinley, K. L., 1976. Framework of the Gorongosa ecosystem. Mocambique. DSc thesis, University of Pretoria.
- Tinley K. L., 1982. The influence of soil moisture balance or ecosystem patterns in southern Africa. In: B. J. Huntley & B. H. Walker (eds), Ecology of Tropical savannas, Ecological Studies 42, pp. 175–192. Springer, Berlin.
- Tyson P. D., 1978. Rainfall changes over South Africa during the period of meterological record. In: M. J. A. Werger (ed.), Biogeography and ecology of southern Africa. pp. 55–69, Junk, The Hague.
- Walker B. H., 1976. An approach to the monitoring of changes in the composition and utilization of woodland and savanna vegetation. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 6(1), 1–32.
- Walker B. H. & Wehrhahn C. F., 1971. Relationships between divided vegetation gradients and measured environmental variables in Saskatchewan wetlands. Ecology 52: 85–95.
- Walker B. H. & Noy-Meir I., 1982. Aspects of the stability and resilience of savanna ecosystems. In: B. J. Huntley & B. H. Walker (eds), Ecology of tropical savannas Ecological Studies 42 pp. 556–590. Springer, Berlin.
- Walter H., 1971. Ecology of tropical and subtropical vegetation. Oliver & Boyd, London.
- Werger M. J. A. & Coetzee B. J., 1978. The Sudano-Zambezian region. In: M. J. A. Werger (ed), Biogeography and ecology of southern Africa. pp. 301–462. Junk, The Hague.
- Ecology and dynamics of the woody vegetation on the Kalahari Sands in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe
Volume 72, Issue 2 , pp 111-128
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links