, Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 523–532

Nature management in coastal areas of Western Europe

  • V. Westhoff
Part 6 Concluding Paper

DOI: 10.1007/BF00044778

Cite this article as:
Westhoff, V. Vegetatio (1985) 62: 523. doi:10.1007/BF00044778


The general environmental characteristics of West European coastal dunes and those of salt marshes are outlined. It is pointed out that the dynamical character of the dune system with its interaction between plants and sand in building and degeneration phases has been known for a much longer period of time than generally believed.

As to the salt marshes the special significance is discussed of ungrazed marshes; the majority of the marshes having been under a grazing regime for a long time is elucidated.

The distinction between internal management is mentioned, i.e. the measures taken to maintain or improve the qualities of an area, versus external management, i.e. the measures to prevent or counteract negative influences from outside the area.


DunesExternal managementInternal managementNature managementSalt marshWestern Europe

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Westhoff
    • 1
  1. 1.GroesbeekThe Netherlands