Vegetatio

, Volume 60, Issue 2, pp 91–101

Phenological characteristics of the tree layer of Kumaun Himalayan forests

  • P. K. Ralhan
  • R. K. Khanna
  • S. P. Singh
  • J. S. Singh
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF00040351

Cite this article as:
Ralhan, P.K., Khanna, R.K., Singh, S.P. et al. Vegetatio (1985) 60: 91. doi:10.1007/BF00040351

Abstract

The phenology of tree components of natural forests occurring between 350 and 2150 m in Kumaun Himalaya is descibed. All forests had more evergreen than deciduous taxa. The degree of evergreenness increased with increasing elevation and decreasing summer dryness. For most species (including all dominants) concentrated leafdrop and simultaneous leafing occurred during the warm-dry period of the year. About half of the species showed multiple leafing.

All species had a sharp flowering peak in April. Wet-season flowering was rare. Most of the species flowered synchronously. In the sal- (Shorea robusta) and pine (Pinus roxburghii) forests a single peak of fruit maturation occurred in summer, while in other forests there also was a secondary peak in autumn.

Keywords

FloweringForestFruitingKumaun HimalayaLeafdropLeaf flushingPhenologyPhenological activity levelTreelayer phenology

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. K. Ralhan
    • 1
  • R. K. Khanna
    • 1
  • S. P. Singh
    • 1
  • J. S. Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyKumaun UniversityNaini TalIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia