, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 139-158

The scale-up of plant cell culture: Engineering considerations

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The enormous versatility of plants has continued to provide the impetus for the development of plant tissue culture as a commercial production strategy for secondary metabolites. Unfortunately problems with slow growth rates and low products yields, which are generally non-growth associated and intracellular, have made plant cell culture-based processes, with a few exceptions, economically unrealistic. Recent developments in reactor design and control, elicitor technology, molecular biology, and consumer demand for natural products, are fuelling a renaissance in plant cell culture as a production strategy. In this review we address the engineering consequences of the unique characteristics of plant cells on the scale-up of plant cell culture.