The I locus controls inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation in the epidermal cells of the soybean seed coat and affects abundance of PRP1, a proline-rich cell wall protein in the seed coat. Saline-soluble PRP1 is abundant in the developing seed coats of cultivar Richland (homozygous I, yellow), while it is significantly decreased in the pigmented isogenic mutant T157 (homozygous i, imperfect black). In this report, we examined soluble PRP1 in several cultivars containing alleles of the I locus which affect spatial distribution of pigmentation in the seed coat. We also characterized PRP1 in isolines with allelic variants of several other loci involved in seed coat pigmentation, including T and Im. The T gene is pleiotropic and affects both pubescence color and seed coat pigmentation and structure. Soluble PRP1 was abundant in the developing seed coats of lines with yellow seed (I or ii alleles) regardless of pubescence color, just as in Richland. Likewise, soluble PRP1 was decreased in pigmented seed coats (ik or i alleles) with grey (t) pubescence, as in T157. However, the total seed coat proteins were not extractable from pigmented seed coats with tawny pubescence (i, T genotypes) because they have proanthocyanidins that exhibit tannin properties. The dominant Im allele inhibits seed coat mottling (irregular patches of pigmentation) that occurs if plants are infected with soybean mosaic virus. PRP1 was 35 kDa in mottled (im) isolines and 34 kDa in non-mottled (Im) isolines. PRP2, which is expressed later in seed coat development and in the hypocotyl hooks of soybean seedlings, was also smaller in Im isolines. In summary, some of the anthocyanin mutations affect the quantity of soluble PRP1 polypeptides, while others correlate with structural changes in developmentally regulated proline-rich proteins.