Mixing in ice-covered lakes
- Lars Bengtsson
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Mixing in ice covered lakes is caused by through-flow currents, oscillations of the ice cover and by convective currents induced by heat flow from the sediments or by solar radiation penetrating the ice. Mainly from studies in Swedish lakes, current velocities and mixing coefficients are quantified for the different processes generating water movement. Seiche movement caused by wind induced oscillations of the ice cover is found to be most efficient for the horizontal mixing giving coefficients of the order 100 cm2 s−1. The lateral dispersion in through-flow currents can be determined using standard formulas, but the dispersion coefficient is 1–2 orders of magnitude less than that for oscillation induced mixing. Convective mixing due to heat flow from the sediments lasts through the winter but is a very slow process. Convection caused by penetration of solar radiation is more effective, but this process is usually of importance only during the last month prior to break-up of the ice-cover.
- Alford, M. E. & E. C. Carmack, 1987. Observations on the cover and streamflow in the Yukon River near Whitehorse during 1983–84. Inland Waters Directorate Scientific Series 152, Environment Canada.
- Bengtsson, L., 1980. Horizontal mixing in water quality modelling. Proc. 6th Nordic Hydrological Conference, Uppsala University, Dept. Physical Geography, Rep. 52: 401–416.
- Bengtsson, L. (1986) Dispersion in ice-covered lakes. Nordic Hydrol. 17: pp. 151-170
- Bilello, M. A. (1968) Water temperatures in a shallow lake during ice formation, growth and decay. Wat. Resour. Res. 4: pp. 749-760
- Colman, J. A., Armstrong, D. E. (1983) Horizontal diffusivity in a small ice-covered lake. Limnol. Oceanogr. 28: pp. 1020-1026
- Falkenmark, M. (ed.), 1973. Dynamic studies in Lake Velen. Int. Hydrol. Decade Sweden, Swedish National Research Council, Rep. 31.
- Farmer, D. M. (1975) Penetrative convection in the absence of mean shear. Quart. J. r. Meteor. Soc. 101: pp. 869-891 CrossRef
- Farmer, D. M., Carmack, E. (1981) Wind mixing and restratification in a lake near the temperature of maximum density. J. phys. Oceanogr. 11: pp. 1516-1533 CrossRef
- Fischer, H. B., E. J. List, R. C. Y. Koh, J. Imberger & N. H. Brooks, 1979. Mixing in inland and coastal waters. Academic Press.
- Haamer, J. (1974) Current measurements with gelatin pendulous. Vatten 30: pp. 57-65
- Hamblin, P. F., Carmack, E. C. (1990) On the rate of heat transfer between a lake and an ice sheet. Cold Regions Science and Technology 18: pp. 173-182 CrossRef
- Harrison, B. F.,1863. On the solution of ice formed on inland waters. Am. J. Sci. Arts 35, Second Series.
- IHD Swedish Lake Research Group 1975. Dynamic studies in lakes 1973–74, Swedish National Research Council. (In Swedish.)
- Likens, G. E., Ragotzkie, R. A. (1965) Vertical water motions in a small ice-covered lake. J. geophys. Res. 70: pp. 2333-2344
- Matthows, P. C., Heaney, S. I. (1987) Solar heating and its influence on mixing in ice-covered lakes. Freshwat. Biol. 18: pp. 135-149
- Stigebrandt, A. (1978) Dynamics of an ice-covered lake with throughflow. Nordic Hydrology 9: pp. 219-244
- Svensson, T., 1987. Temperature and heat exchange in lakes during winter. Swedish Council for Building Research, R 97: 1987, 145 pp. (In Swedish.)
- Svensson, U., Larsson, R. (1980) A one dimensional numerical model study of some basic features of the flow in ice-covered lakes. J. Hydraulic Res. 18: pp. 251-267
- Tesaker, E. (1973) Horizontal cross-flow temperature gradients in a lake due to coriolis force. IAHS Publ. 109: pp. 72-80
- Virtanen, M., Forsius, J., Sarkkula, J. (1979) The ice covered circulation in Lake Pyhäjärvi near Tampere. Proc. Nordic Workshop Dynamics of Lakes, Norwegian Hydrological Committee 2: pp. 317-322
- Yoshimura, S. A., 1937. A contribution to the knowledge of deep water temperatures of Japanese lakes, Part 2, Winter temperatures. Jap. J. Astron. Geophys. Trans., 14.
- Mixing in ice-covered lakes
Volume 322, Issue 1-3 , pp 91-97
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- solar radiation
- sediment heat flow
- ice cover
- Industry Sectors
- Lars Bengtsson (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-22100, Lund, Sweden