Andreo CS, Gonzalez DH, Iglesias AA: Higher plant phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase, structure and regulation. FEBS Lett 213: 1–8 (1987).CrossRef
Bird A: CpG-rich islands and the function of DNA methylation. Nature 321: 209–213 (1986).PubMed
Callis J, Fromm M, Walbot V: Introns increase gene expression in cultured maize cells. Genes Devel 1: 1183–1200 (1987).PubMed
Campbell WH, Gowri G: Codon usage in higher plants, green algae and cyanobacteria. Plant Physiol 92: 1–11 (1990).
Chao S, Raines CA, Longstaff M, Sharp PJ, Gale MD, Dyer TA: Chromosomal location and copy number in wheat and some of its close relatives of genes for enzymes involved in photosynthesis. Mol Gen Genet 218: 423–430 (1989).CrossRef
Chardot TP, Wedding R: Role of cysteine in activation and allosteric regulation of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Plant Physiol 98: 780–783 (1992).
Cockburn W: Stomatal mechanism as the basis of the evolution of CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Plant Cell Envir 6: 275–279 (1983).
Crawford JD: Plant Molecular Systematics: Molecular Approaches. Wiley-Interscience, New York (1990).
Crétin C, Keryer E, Tagu D, Lepiniec L, Vidal J, Gadal P: Complete cDNA sequence of Sorghum
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase involved in C4 photosynthesis. Nucl Acids Res 18: 658 (1990).PubMed
Crétin C, Bakrim N, Kéryer E, Santi S, Lepiniec L, Vidal J, Gadal P: Production in Escherichia coli
of active Sorghum
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase which can be phosphorylated. Plant Mol Biol 17: 83–88 (1991).PubMed
Crétin C, Santi S, Kéryer E, Lepiniec L, Tagu D, Vidal J, Gadal P: The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family in Sorghum
: promoter structure, amino acid sequences and expression of genes. Gene 99: 87–94 (1991).CrossRefPubMed
Cronquist A: An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York (1981).
Cushman JC, Meyer G, Michalowski CB, Schmitt JM, Bohnert HJ: Salt stress leads to differential expression of two isogenes of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase during Crassulacean acid metabolism induction in the common ice plant. Plant Cell 1: 715–725 (1989).CrossRefPubMed
Dessens P, Fondrat C, Valencien C, Mugnier C: A French service for access to biomolecular sequences databases. CABIOS 6: 355–356 (1990).PubMed
D'Onofrio G and Bernardi G: A universal compositional correlation among codon positions. Gene 110: 81–88 (1992).CrossRefPubMed
Dover GA: DNA turnover and the molecular clock. J Mol Evol 26: 47–58 (1987).PubMed
Dover GA, Flavell RB: Molecular coevolution: DNA divergence and the maintenance of function. Cell 38: 622–623 (1984).CrossRefPubMed
Eikmanns BJ, Follettie MT, Griot MU, Sinskey AJ: The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum
. Mol Gen Genet 218: 330–339 (1989).CrossRefPubMed
Felsenstein J: Phylogenies from molecular sequences: inference and reliability. Annu Rev Genet 22: 521–565 (1988).CrossRefPubMed
Fujita N, Miwa T, Ishijima K, Katsuki H: The primary structure of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of E. coli
. J Biochem 95: 909–916 (1984).PubMed
Gardiner-Garden M, Sved JA and Frommer M: Methylation sites in angiosperm genes. J Mol Evol 34: 219–230 (1992).
Gardiner-Garden M, Frommer M: Significant CpG-rich regions in angiosperm genes. J Mol Evol 34: 231–245 (1992).
Goodall GJ, Filipowicz W: Different effects on intron nucleotide composition and secondary structure on pre-mRNA splicing in monocot and dicot plants. EMBO J 10: 2635–2644 (1991).PubMed
Grula JW, Hudspeth RL: The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family of maize. In: Key JL, McIntosh L (eds) Plant Gene Systems and their Biology, pp. 207–216 (1987).
Higgins DG, Sharp PM: Clustal: a package for performing multiple sequence alignment on a microcomputer. Gene 73: 237–244 (1988).CrossRefPubMed
Hudspeth RL, Grula JW: Structure and expression of the maize gene encoding the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozyme involved in C4 photosynthesis. Plant Mol Biol 12: 579–589 (1989).
Jiao J, Chollet R: Posttranslational regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in C4 and Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Plant Physiol 95: 981–985 (1991).
Joshi CP: Putative polyadenylation signals in nuclear genes of higher plants: a compilation and analysis. Nucl Acid Res 15: 9627–9641 (1987).
Kahler AL, Hallauer AR, Gardner C: Allozyme polymorphisms within and among openpollinated and adapted exotic populations of maize. Theor Appl Genet 72: 592–601 (1986).CrossRef
Kano-Murakami Y, Suzuki I, Sugiyama T, Matsuoka M: Sequence-specific interactions of maize factor with a GC-rich rich repeat in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene. Mol Gen Genet 225: 203–208 (1991).CrossRefPubMed
Katagiri F, Kodaki T, Fujita N, Izui K, Katsuki H: Nucleotide sequence of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans
. Gene 38: 265–269 (1985).CrossRefPubMed
Kawamura T, Shigesada K, Yanagisawa S, Izui K: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase prevalent in maize roots: Isolation of a cDNA clone and its use for analyses of the gene and gene expression. J Biochem 107: 165–168 (1990).PubMed
Kimura M: Molecular evolutionary clock and the neutral theory. J Mol Evol 26: 24–33 (1987).PubMed
Koizumi N, Sato F, Terano Y, Yamada Y: Sequence analysis of cDNA encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from cultured tobacco cells. Plant Mol Biol 17: 535–539 (1991).PubMed
Kozak M: Compilation and analysis of sequences upstream from the translational start site in eukaryotic mRNA. Nucl Acids Res 12: 857–872 (1984).PubMed
Langdale JA, Nelson T: Spatial regulation of photosynthetic development in C4 plants. Trends Genet 7: 191–196 (1991).PubMed
Langdale JA, Taylor WC, Nelson T: Cell-specific accumulation of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is correlated with demethylation at a specific site > 3 kb upstream of the gene. Mol Gen Genet 225: 49–55 (1991).CrossRefPubMed
Lepiniec L, Santi S, Kéryer E, Amiet V, Vidal J, Gadal P, Crétin C: Complete nucleotide sequence of one member of the Sorghum
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family. Plant Mol Biol 17: 1077–1079 (1991).PubMed
Lepiniec L, Kéryer E, Tagu D, Gadal P, Crétin C: Complete nucleotide sequence of a Sorghum
gene coding for the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase involved in C4 photosynthesis. Plant Mol Biol 19: 339–342 (1992).PubMed
Luinenburg I, Coleman JR: Identification, characterization and sequence analysis of the gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Anabaena
sp. PCC7120. J Gen Microbiol 138: 685–691 (1992).PubMed
Martinez P, Martin W, Cerff R: Structure, evolution and anaerobic regulation of a nuclear gene encoding cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from maize. J Mol Biol 208: 551–565 (1989).PubMed
Martin W, Gierl A, Saedler H: Molecular evidence for pre-cretaceous angiosperm origins. Nature 339: 46–48 (1989).CrossRef
Matsuoka M, Shingo H: Comparative studies of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from C3 and C4 plants. Plant Physiol 85: 947–951 (1987).
Monson RK, Moore BD: On the significance of C3–C4 intermediate photosynthesis to the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Plant Cell Envir 12: 689–699 (1989).
Montero LM, Salinas J, Matassi G, Bernardi G: Gene distribution and isochore organisation in the nuclear genome of plants. Nucl Acids Res 18: 1859–1867 (1990).PubMed
Ngernprasirtsiri J, Chollet R, Kobayashi H, Sugiyama T, Akazawa T: DNA methylation and the differential expression of C4 photosynthesis genes in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of greening maize leaves. J Biol Chem 264: 8241–8248 (1989).PubMed
Nelson T, Langdale JA: Developmental genetics of C4 photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43: 25–47 (1992).CrossRef
Ochman H, Wilson AC: Evolution in bacteria: evidence for a universal substitution rate in cellular genome. J Mol Evol 26: 74–86 (1987).PubMed
Otha T: Multigene families and the evolution of complexity. J Mol Evol 33: 34–41 (1991).PubMed
Poetsh W, Hermans J, Westhoff P: Multiple cDNAs of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the C4 dicot Flaveria trinervia
. FEBS Lett 292: 133–136 (1991).CrossRefPubMed
Razin A, Cedar H: DNA methylation and gene expression. Microbiol Rev 55: 451–458 (1991).PubMed
Saitou N, Nei N: The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4: 406–425 (1987).PubMed
Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T: Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1989).
Schäffner AR, Sheen J: Maize C4 photosynthesis involves differential regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase genes. Plant J 2: 221–232 (1992).CrossRefPubMed
Schuller KA, Plaxton WC, Turpin DH: Regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from the green alga selenastrum minutum. Plant Physiol 93: 1303–1311 (1990).
Springer PS, Zimmer EA, Bennetzen JL: Genomic organization of the ribosomal DNA of Sorghum
and its close relatives. Theor Appl Genet 77: 8844–8850 (1989).CrossRef
Sueoka N: Directional mutation pressure, selective constraints and genetic equilibria. J Mol Evol 34: 95–114 (1992).CrossRefPubMed
Tang H, Dube SK, Liang GH, Kung SD: Possible repetitive DNA markers for eusorghum and parasorghum and their potential use in examining phylogenetic hypotheses on the origin of Sorghum
species. Genome 34: 241–250 (1991).PubMed
Terada K, Izui K: Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved histidine residue of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: His 138 is essential for the second partial reaction. Eur J Biochem 202: 797–803 (1991).PubMed
Ting IP, Osmond CB: Photosynthetic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases, characteristics of alloenzymes from leaves of C3 and C4 plants. Plant Physiol 51: 439–447 (1973).
Troitsky AV, Melekhovets YF, Rakhimova GM, Bobrova VK, Valiejo-Roman KM, Antonov AS: Angiosperm origin and early stages of seed plant evolution deduced from rRNA sequences comparisons. J Mol Evol 32: 256–261 (1991).
VanQuy L, Foyer C, Champigny ML: Effect of light and NO3 on wheat leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. Plant Physiol 97: 1476–1482 (1991).
Whittier RF, Sugimoto T, Kawasaki T, Shibata D, Kawamura Y: Cloning and characterization of PEPC cDNA from soybean, a C3 plant. ISPMB congress, Tucson. Abstract 1852 (1991); and Sugimoto T, Kawasaki T, Kato T, Whittier RF, Shibata D, Kawamura Y: cDNA sequence and expression of a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene from soybean. Plant Mol Biol, in press.
Woese CR: Bacterial evolution. Microbiol Rev 51: 221–271 (1987).PubMed
Wolfe KH, Gouy M, Yang YW, Sharp PM, Li WH: Date of monocot-dicot divergence estimated from chloroplast DNA sequence data. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 6201–6205 (1989).PubMed
Yanagisawa S, Izui K: Maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase involved in C4 photosynthesis: nucleotide analysis of the 5′ flanking region of the gene. J Biochem 106: 982–987 (1989).PubMed
Yanagisawa S, Izui K: Multiple interactions between tissue-specific nuclear proteins and the promoter of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene for C4 photosynthesis in zea maize. Mol Gen Genet 224: 325–332 (1990).CrossRefPubMed
Zuckerland E: The molecular evolutionary clock. J Mol Evol 26: 34–46 (1987).PubMed