, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 789-803

Organization of the genes encoding chalcone synthase in Pisum sativum

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Abstract

To analyze the regulation of defense-related genes by signal molecules produced by phytopathogens, we isolated genes that encode chalcone synthase (CHS) in Pisum sativum. We have obtained seven independent genomic clones that contain at least seven classes of CHS genes, identified by the hybridization analysis to CHS cDNA and by the restriction mapping analysis. Two of the genomic clones (clone 5 and 6) each contain two CHS genes in a tandem repeat. The nucleotide sequence analysis of CHS genomic clone 5 revealed that PsCHS1 and PsCHS2 were corresponding genes of the CHS cDNA clones, pCC6 and pCC2, respectively, as reported earlier. Both genes are interrupted by a single intron of 88 nucleotides with identical sequences, although exonic sequences and 5′-flanking sequences are divergent. Nucleotide sequences of the introns in five other classes of CHS genes showed that three classes had an intron of 87 nt with a striking homology to each other, but that the intron of the other two classes of CHS genes showed heterogeneity both in size and nucleotide sequence. 5′-upstream regions of PsCHS1 and PsCHS2 did not show sequence homology except the 31 bp identical sequence that contains the CCTACC motif resembling the box-1 sequence. Both PsCHS1 and PsCHS2 genes are shown to be induced by fungal elicitor by a primer extension analysis and a transient transformation analysis using pea protoplasts prepared from suspension cultured-cells.