We studied the taxonomy and distribution of the Conchostraca in Yugoslavia. A diverse fauna occurs in the country. However, the systematics of this group is still incomplete and has many problems. There is considerable variability of morphological characters. By a comparative-morphological analysis of the populations found, we re-evaluated the taxonomic significance of a series of structural characters, and offer comments on the results.
In Yugoslavia four families were found: Cyzicidae Stebbing, 1910; Limnadiidae Burmeister, 1843; Imnadiidae Botnariuc & Orghidan, 1941 and Leptestheriidae Daday, 1923, with a present total of 8 species and 4 subspecies. Within the genus Imnadia Hertzog, 1935, three new species were found: Imnadia cristata Marinček, 1972; Imnadia banatica Marinček & Valvajter, 1982 and Imnadia panonica Marinček & Petrov, 1984. Within the genus Eoleptestheria Daday, 1923, the species Eoleptestheria spinosa Marinček, 1978, with four distinct subspecies was discovered.