Euphytica

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 665–675

The genomes of Arachis hypogaea. 1. Cytogenetic studies of putative genome donors

  • J. Smartt
  • W. C. Gregory
  • M. Pfluge Gregory
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF00023701

Cite this article as:
Smartt, J., Gregory, W.C. & Gregory, M.P. Euphytica (1978) 27: 665. doi:10.1007/BF00023701

Summary

Cytological studies of wild diploid Arachis species in the same section of the genus (sect. Arachis) as the cultivated peanut A. hypogaea L. show, with one exception, a karyotype characterized by the presence of 9 pairs of larger chromosomes and one pair of small (‘A’) chromosomes. The exceptional species A. batozocoiKrap. et Greg. has a more uniform karyotype. Interspecific hybrids between diploid species of similar karyotype have moderate to high pollen stainability, those involving A. batizocoi have zero pollen stainability and a very irregular PMC meiosis. Such infertile hybrids are the most likely to produce fertile, stable amphidiploids on doubling the chromosome complement. It is suggested that the cultivated peanut could have originated from such a sterile interspecific hybrid and on morphological and phytogeographic grounds the most likely genome donors are A. cardenasii (nomen nudum) and A. batizocoi of the species within section Arachis, which have been collected up to the present time.

Index words

Arachis hypogaea groundnut peanut putative genome donors evolution origin karyotypes amphidiploidy chromosome pairing Arachis batizocoi Arachis cardenasii phytogeography 

Copyright information

© H. Veenman en Zonen B.V. 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Smartt
    • 1
  • W. C. Gregory
    • 2
  • M. Pfluge Gregory
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyThe UniversitySouthamptonEngland
  2. 2.Department of Crop ScienceNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA