, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 665-675

The genomes of Arachis hypogaea. 1. Cytogenetic studies of putative genome donors

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Cytological studies of wild diploid Arachis species in the same section of the genus (sect. Arachis) as the cultivated peanut A. hypogaea L. show, with one exception, a karyotype characterized by the presence of 9 pairs of larger chromosomes and one pair of small (‘A’) chromosomes. The exceptional species A. batozocoi Krap. et Greg. has a more uniform karyotype. Interspecific hybrids between diploid species of similar karyotype have moderate to high pollen stainability, those involving A. batizocoi have zero pollen stainability and a very irregular PMC meiosis. Such infertile hybrids are the most likely to produce fertile, stable amphidiploids on doubling the chromosome complement. It is suggested that the cultivated peanut could have originated from such a sterile interspecific hybrid and on morphological and phytogeographic grounds the most likely genome donors are A. cardenasii (nomen nudum) and A. batizocoi of the species within section Arachis, which have been collected up to the present time.

Paper number 5560 of the Journal Series of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh, NC 27650