Concerted regulation of lysine and threonine synthesis in tobacco plants expressing bacterial feedback-insensitive aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase
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The essential amino acids lysine and threonine are synthesized in higher plants by two separate branches of a common pathway. This pathway is primarily regulated by three key enzymes, namely aspartate kinase (AK), dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS) and homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD), but how these enzymes operate in concert is as yet unknown. Addressing this issue, we have expressed in transgenic tobacco plants high levels of bacterial AK and DHPS, which are much less sensitive to feedback inhibition by lysine and threonine than their plant counterparts. Such expression of the bacterial DHPS by itself resulted in a substantial overproduction of lysine, whereas plants expressing only the bacterial AK overproduced threonine. When both bacterial enzymes were expressed in the same plant, the level of free lysine exceeded by far the level obtained by the bacterial DHPS alone. This increase, however, was accompanied by a significant reduction in threonine accumulation compared to plants expressing the bacterial AK alone. Our results suggested that in tobacco plants the synthesis of both lysine and threonine is under a concerted regulation exerted by AK, DHPS, and possibly also by HSD. We propose that the balance between lysine and threonine synthesis is determined by competition between DHPS and HSD on limiting amounts of their common substrate 3-aspartic semialdehyde, whose level, in turn, is determined primarily by the activity of AK. The potential of this molecular approach to increase the nutritional quality of plants is discussed.
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Plant Molecular Biology
Volume 23, Issue 4 , pp 759-768
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- apical dominance
- aspartate kinase
- dihydrodipicolinate synthase
- lysine and threonine overproduction
- transgenic plants
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