Dwarlism in F1 hybrids has been observed in over 100 crosses of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia. In each cross, one parent always had small seeds and the other parent either medium or la ge ones. This apparent incompatibility between the two groups of germplasm was controlled by two complementary, dominant genes: DL1 and DL2. Smallseeded bean lines carried gene DL1 and originated in Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico; medium for large-seeded bean lines carried gene DL2 and were from Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Turkey, The United States, and West Germany. Thes two genes have probably played an important role in the evolution of dry bean forms of different seed sizes by serving as a genetic barrier or isolating mechanism, thus limiting free genetic recombination between the two germplasm groups.
Apparent differences in the adaptiveness and yielding ability of the two groups of bean germplasm, smallys, medium- and large-seeded, and some breeding implications for manipulation of the genes causing F1 hybrid dwarfism were also discovered.