, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 485-491

Higher-plant chloroplast and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphophosphatase isoenzymes: origins via duplication rather than prokaryote-eukaryote divergence

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Full-size cDNAs encoding the precursors of chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP), sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBP), and the small subunit of Rubisco (RbcS) from spinach were cloned. These cDNAs complete the set of homologous probes for all nuclear-encoded enzymes of the Calvin cycle from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). FBP enzymes not only of higher plants but also of non-photosynthetic eukaryotes are found to be unexpectedly similar to eubacterial homologues, suggesting a eubacterial origin of these eukaryotic nuclear genes. Chloroplast and cytosolic FBP isoenzymes of higher plants arose through a gene duplication event which occurred early in eukaryotic evolution. Both FBP and SBP of higher plant chloroplasts have acquired substrate specificity, i.e. have undergone functional specialization since their divergence from bifunctional FBP/SBP enzymes of free-living eubacteria.