, Volume 335, Issue 2, pp 147-157

Comparison of the hatching process of the tadpole shrimps Triops cancriformis and Lepidurus apus lubbocki (Notostraca) and its relation to their distribution in rain-pools in Israel

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Abstract

Rain-pool habitats are gradually disappearing in Israel as a result of agricultural and urban development. Present and past records of notostracan distribution here reveal a difference in the occurrence of Triops cancriformis and Lepidurus apus lubbocki, the former rather rare, and support the suggestion that species of Triops are more thermophilic than Lepidurus, with optimal hatching temperature 8–12°C higher. The limited distribution of T. cancriformis in Israel may be partly attributed to sub-optimal temperatures (<20°C) in early winter.

All populations of T. cancriformis in Israel were monosexual female. Resting Notostraca eggs float and become exposed to light, needed for hatching, and to warm day-time temperatures at the water surface which enhance embryonic development. Exposure to higher temperatures may be particularly important for the thermophilic T. cancriformis in Israel, where deep water temperatures in early winter are often below hatching values.