The influence of chemical form and concentration of arsenic on rice growth and tissue arsenic concentration
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Arsenic absorption by rice (Oryza sativa, L.) in relation to the chemical form and concentration of arsenic added in nutrient solution was examined. A 4 × 3 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with treatments consisting of four arsenic chemical forms [arsenite, As(III); arsenate, As(V); monomethyl arsenic acid, MMAA; and dimethyl arsenic acid, DMAA], three arsenic concentrations [0.05, 0.2, and 0.8 mg As L-1], and two cultivars [Lemont and Mercury] with a different degree of susceptibility to straighthead, a physiological disease attributed to arsenic toxicity. Two controls, one for each cultivar, were also included. Arsenic phytoavailability and phytotoxicity are determined primarily by the arsenic chemical form present. Application of DMAA increased total dry matter production. While application of As(V) did not affect plant growth, both As(III) and MMAA were phytotoxic to rice. Availability of arsenic to rice followed the trend: DMAA<As(V)<MMAA<As(III). Upon absorption, DMAA was readily translocated to the shoot. Arsenic(III), As(V), and MMAA accumulated in the roots. With increased arsenic application rates the arsenic shoot/root concentration decreased for the As(III) and As(V) treatments. Monomethyl arsenic acid (MMAA), however, was translocated to the shoot upon increased application. The observed differential absorption and translocation of arsenic chemical forms by rice is possibly responsible for the straighthead disorder attributed to arsenic.
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- The influence of chemical form and concentration of arsenic on rice growth and tissue arsenic concentration
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