Distribution of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates along a thermal stream gradient
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The distribution and abundance of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates were examined along a natural thermal gradient formed by hot springs in Little Geysers Creek, Sonoma Co., California, USA. Maximum water temperatures ranged from 52 °C at the uppermost station to 23 °C at a station 400 m downstream. Benthic chlorophyll a decreased exponentially from 2.5 g m−2 at 52 °C to less than 0.1 g m−2 at 23 °C, a pattern of decline also exhibited by algal phaeophytin. Blue-green algae dominated at higher temperatures but were replaced by filamentous green algae and diatoms at lower temperatures.
Macroinvertebrates were absent at temperatures ⩾45 °C; the highest density (> 150 000 m−2, mainly Chironomidae) occurred at 34 °C, whereas biomass was highest (4.6 g m−2, as dry weight) at 23 °C and species richness (15 species) was highest at 27 °C. The two predominant macroinvertebrate populations (the midge Tanytarsus sp. and the caddisfly Helicopsyche borealis) occurred at sites that were several degrees below their lethal thermal threshold, suggesting that a temperature ‘buffer’ is maintained.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Barton, D. R. & M. A. Lock, 1979. Numerical abundance and biomass of bacteria, algae and macrobenthos of a large Northern river, the Athabasca. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 64: 345–359.
- Brock, T. D., 1967. Relationship between standing crop and primary productivity along a hot spring thermal gradient. Ecology 48: 566–571.
- Brock, T. D., 1970. High temperature systems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1: 191–220. CrossRef
- Brock, T. D., 1978. Thermophilic microorganisms and life at high temperatures. Springer-Verlag, N.Y., 465 pp.
- Brues, C. T., 1924. Observations on animal life in the thermal springs of Yellowstone Park, with a consideration of the thermal environment. Proc. am. Acad. Arts Sci. 63: 371–437.
- Brues, C. T., 1928. Studies on the fauna of hot springs in the western United States and the biology of thermophilic animals. Proc. am. Acad. Arts Sci. 63: 139–228.
- Castenholz, R. W., 1969. The thermophilic cyanophytes of Iceland and the upper temperature limit. J. Phycol. 5: 360–368.
- Castenholz, R. W., 1972. Low temperature acclimation and survival in the thermophilic Oscillatoria terebriformis. In T. V. Desikachary (ed.), Taxonomy and Biology of Blue-green Algae. University of Madras, India: 406–418.
- Castenholz, R. W., 1976. The effect of sulfide on the bluegreen algae of hot springs, 1. New Zealand and Iceland. J. Phycol. 12: 54–68.
- Castenholz, R. W., 1978. The biogeography of hot spring algae through enrichment cultures. Mitt. int. Ver. Limnol. 21: 296–315.
- Collins, N. C., R. Mitchell & R. G. Wiegert, 1976. Functional analysis of a thermal spring ecosystem, with an evaluation of the role of consumers. Ecology 57: 1221–1232.
- Cox, G. W., 1980. Laboratory manual of general ecology, 3rd Edn. W. E. Brown, Dubuque, IA, 275 pp.
- deKozlowski, S. J. & D. L. Bunting, II, 1981. A laboratory study on the thermal tolerance of four southeastern stream insect species (Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera). Hydrobiologia 79: 141–145. CrossRef
- Enriquez, L. A., 1978. Geysers unit 18 site specific studies: description of water quality characteristics. Pacif. Gas elect. Co., Dep. Engng Res. Rep. 411–77.73, S. Ramon, CA, 38 pp.
- Feldmeth, C. R., 1981. The evolution of thermal tolerance in desert pupfish (genus Cyprinodon). In R. J. Naiman & D. L. Soltz (ed), Fishes in North American Deserts. J. Wiley & Sons, N.Y.: 357–384.
- Fraleigh, P. C. & R. G. Wiegert, 1975. A model explaining successional change in standing crop of thermal blue-green algae. Ecology 56: 656–664.
- Gilbert, D. A., 1981. The Geysers unit 20 site specific water quality investigation. Pacif. Gas elect. Co., Dep. Engng Res. Rep. 411–81.257, S. Ramon, CA, 40 pp.
- Hein, M. K. & J. D. Koppen, 1979. Effects of thermally elevated discharges on the structure and composition of estuarine periphyton diatom assemblages. Estuar. coast. mar. Sci. 9: 385–401. CrossRef
- Lamberti, G. A. & J. W. Moore, 1984. Aquatic insects as primary consumers. In V. H. Resh & D. M. Rosenberg (eds), The Ecology of Aquatic Insects. Praeger Publishers, N.Y.: 164–195.
- Lamberti, G. A. & V. H. Resh, 1983a. Geothermal effects on stream benthos: separate influences of thermal and chemical components on periphyton and macroinvertebrates. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 40: 1995–2009.
- Lamberti, G. A. & V. H. Resh, 1983b. Stream periphyton and insect herbivores: an experimental study of grazing by a caddisfly population. Ecology 64: 1124–1135.
- Lamberti, G. A. & V. H. Resh, 1985. Comparability of introduced tiles and natural substrates for sampling lotic bacteria, algae, and macroinvertebrates. Freshwat. Biol. 15: 21–30.
- Matthews, W. J. & J. D. Maness, 1979. Critical thermal maxima, oxygen tolerances and success of cyprinid fishes in a southwestern river. Am. Midl. Nat. 102: 374–377.
- Mitchell, R., 1974. The evolution of thermophily in hot springs. Q. Rev. Biol. 49: 229–242. CrossRef
- Moore, L. F., 1978. Attached algae at thermal generating stations — the effect of temperature on Cladophora. Verh. int. Ver. Limnol. 20: 1727–1733.
- Moss, B., 1967a. A spectrophotometric method for the estimation of percentage degradation of chlorophylls to pheo-pigments in extracts of algae. Limnol. Oceanogr. 12: 335–340.
- Moss, B., 1967b. A note on the estimation of chlorophyll a in freshwater algal communities. Limnol. Oceanogr. 12: 340–342.
- Nichols, S. J., 1981. Effect of thermal effluents on oligochaetes in Keowee Reservoir, South Carolina. Hydrobiologia 79: 129–136. CrossRef
- Paladino, F. V., J. R. Spotila, J. P. Schubauer & K. T. Kowalski, 1980. The critical thermal maximum: a technique used to elucidate physiological stress and adaptation in fishes. Revue Can. Biol. 39: 115–122.
- Rasmussen, J. B., 1982. The effect of thermal effluent, before and after macrophyte harvesting, on standing crop and species composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Lake Wabamun, Alberta. Can. J. Zool. 60: 3196–3205.
- Resh, V. H. & M. A. Barnby, 1984. Distribution of shore bugs and brine flies at Sylvan Springs, Yellowstone National Park. Gt Basin Nat. 44: 99–103.
- Resh, V. H., G. A. Lamberti & J. R. Wood, 1984. Biological studies of Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen) in a coastal California stream. Ser. Ent. 30: 315–319.
- Robinson, W. H. & E. C. Turner, Jr., 1975. Insect fauna of some Virginia thermal streams. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 77: 391–398.
- Stockner, J. G., 1967. Observations of thermophilic algal communities in Mount Rainier and Yellowstone National Parks. Limnol. Oceanogr. 12: 13–17.
- Wickstrom, C. E. & R. G. Wiegert, 1980. Response of thermal algal-bacterial mat to grazing by brine flies. Microb. Ecol. 6: 303–315. CrossRef
- Wiegert, R. G. & P. C. Fraleigh, 1972. Ecology of Yellowstone thermal effluent systems: net primary production and species diversity of a successional blue-green algal mat. Limnol. Oceanogr. 17: 215–228.
- Wiggins, G. B., 1977. Larvae of the North American caddisfly genera (Trichoptera). University of Toronto Press, Downsview, Ontario, 401 pp.
- Wilde, E. W. & L. J. Tilly, 1981. Structural characteristics of algal communities in thermally altered artificial streams. Hydrobiologia 76: 57–63. CrossRef
- Williams, D. D., A. T. Read & K. A. Moore, 1983. The biology and zoogeography of Helicopsyche borealis (Trichoptera: Helicopsychidae): a Nearctic representative of a tropical genus. Can. J. Zool. 61: 2288–2299.
- Winterbourn, M. J. 1969. The distribution of algae and insects in hot spring thermal gradients at Waimunga, New Zealand. New Zealand J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 3: 459–465.
About this Article
- Distribution of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates along a thermal stream gradient
Volume 128, Issue 1 , pp 13-21
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors