Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 393–397

A new heterospecific foraging association between the puddingwife wrasse,Halichoeres radiatus, and the bar jack,Caranx Tuber: evaluation of the foraging consequences

  • Troy A. Baird

DOI: 10.1007/BF00007535

Cite this article as:
Baird, T.A. Environ Biol Fish (1993) 38: 393. doi:10.1007/BF00007535


The bar jack,Caranx Tuber, was commonly observed to follow individual puddingwife wrasses,Halichoeres radiatus, that were foraging on the substrate. Individuals of both species actively pursued the other to maintain these heterospecific foraging ‘teams’, were sometimes attracted to feeding acts initiated by team partners, and the foraging rates of teamed jacks and wrasses were positively correlated. Pilfering of food items was rare, suggesting little, if any, competition cost of this foraging association. The ratio of bites to search in teamed jacks was over three times that when solitary, and jacks were sometimes aggressive to conspecifics attempting to join their team, suggesting that the association is beneficial to the jacks. Both bite and search rates were higher in puddingwifes when teamed with a jack, indicating that the association also benefits the wrasses. Benefits to puddingwifes may be derived directly from attendants because wrasses were sometimes attracted to jack foraging acts. However, increased foraging in wrasses may also be a consequence of heightened motivation to feed owing to heterospecific social facilitation.

Key words

Feeding Interspecific association Social behavior Labridae Carangidae Reef Fish 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Troy A. Baird
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Central OklahomaEdmondUSA