Benefits of heterospecific foraging by the Caribbean wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti (Pisces: Labridae)
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Terminal-phase yellowhead wrasses, Halichoeres garnoti, foraged alone or in association with foraging goatfish, Pseudupeneus maculatus and Mulloides martinicus. Whereas H. garnoti did not dig for benthic infauna, the goatfish foraged almost exclusively on and in sand substrata. Wrasses in the company of goatfish made significantly more strikes on sand substrata than did solitary wrasses, although there were no significant differences in the frequency of strikes on sand and hard substrata combined. The frequencies of other behaviors (searches, scratches, flights, chases, rests, yawns, and cleanings) were not significantly different between solitary and associated wrasses. H. garnoti are attracted to foraging goatfish, which provide access to an otherwise unavailable food resource.
- Barlow, G.W. 1974. Extraspecific imposition of social grouping among surgeonfishes (Pisces: Acanthuridae). J. ZooL, Lond. 174: 333–340.
- Barnard, C.J. & D.B.A. Thompson. 1985. Gulls and plovers: the ecology and behaviour of mixed-species feeding groups. Columbia University Press, New York. 302 pp.
- Berner, T.O. & T.C. Grubb, Jr. 1985. An experimental analysis of mixed-species flocking in birds of deciduous woodland. Ecology 66: 1229–1236. CrossRef
- Collette, B.B. & S.A. Earle (ed.) 1972. Results of the Tektite program: ecology of coral reef fishes. Nat. Hist. Mus. L.A. City Sci. Bull. 14. 179 pp.
- Dubin, R.E. 1982. Behavioral interactions between Caribbean reef fish and eels (Muraenidae and Ophichthidae). Copeia 1982: 229–232.
- Foster, S.A. 1985. Group foraging by a coral reef fish: a mechanism for gaining access to defended resources. Anim. Behav. 33: 782–792. CrossRef
- Fricke, H.W. 1975. The role of behaviour in marine symbiotic animals. pp. 581–594. In: D.H. Jennings & D.L. Lee(ed.) Symbiosis, Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 29, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Gosline, W.A. 1984. Structure, function, and ecology in the goatfishes (family Mullidae). Pac. Sci. 38: 312–323.
- Hobson, E.S. 1974. Feeding relationships of teleostean fishes on coral reefs in Kona, Hawaii. U.S. Fish. Bull. 72: 915–1031.
- Itzkowitz, M. 1977. Social dynamics of mixed-species groups of Jamaican reef fishes. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 2: 361–384. CrossRef
- Karplus, I. 1978. A feeding association between the grouper Epinephelus fasciatus and the moray eel Gymnothorax griseus. Copeia 1978: 164.
- Kaufman, L.S. & J.P. Ebersole. 1984. Microtopography and the organization of two assemblages of coral reef fishes in the West Indies. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 78: 253–268. CrossRef
- Kaufman, L.S. & K.F. Liem. 1982. Fishes of the suborder Labroidei (Pisces: Perciformes): phylogeny, ecology, and evolutionary significance. Brevoira 472. 19 pp.
- McNaughton, S.J. 1984. Grazing lawns: animals in herds, plant form, and coevolution. Amer. Nat. 124: 863–886. CrossRef
- Montgomery, W.L. 1981. Mixed-species schools and the significance of vertical territories of damselfishes. Copeia 1981: 477–481.
- Morse, D.H. 1977. Feeding behavior and predator avoidance in heterospecific groups. BioScience 27: 332–339. CrossRef
- Ormond, R.F.G. 1980. Aggressive mimicry and other interspecific feeding associations among Red Sea coral reef predators. J. Zool., Lond. 191: 247–262. CrossRef
- Randall, J.E. 1967. Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Stud. Trop. Oceanogr. Miami 5: 665–847.
- Randall, J.E. 1983. Caribbean reef fishes, revised ed. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City. 350 pp.
- Randall, J.E., S.M. Head & A.P.L. Sanders. 1978. Food habits of the giant humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus (Labridae). Env. Biol. Fish. 3: 235–238. CrossRef
- Reinthal, P.N. & S.M. Lewis. 1986. Social behaviour, foraging efficiency and habitat utilization in a group of tropical herbivorous fish. Anim. Behav. (in press).
- Robertson, D.R., H.P.A. Sweatman, E.A. Fletcher & M.G. Cleland. 1976. Schooling as a mechanism for circumventing the territoriality of competitors. Ecology 57: 1208–1220. CrossRef
- Smith, C.L. & J.C. Tyler. 1972. Space resource sharing in a coral reef fish community. pp. 125–178. In: B.B. Collette & S.A. Earle (ed.) Results of the Tektite Program: Ecology of Coral Reef Fishes, Nat. Hist. Mus. L.A. City Sci. Bull. 14.
- Sokal, R.R. & F.J. Rohlf. 1969. Biometry. W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. 776 pp.
- Thresher, R.E. 1979. Social behavior and ecology of two sympatric wrasses (Labridae: Halichoeres spp.) off the coast of Florida. Mar. Biol. 53: 161–172. CrossRef
- Wolf, N.G. 1983. Foraging ecology of herbivorous reef fishes in mixed-species groups. Amer. Zool. 23: 985.
- Wolf, N.G. 1985. Food selection and resources partitioning by herbivorous fishes in mixed-species groups. pp. 23–28. In: Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Cong., Tahiti, Vol. 4.
- Benefits of heterospecific foraging by the Caribbean wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti (Pisces: Labridae)
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Volume 18, Issue 4 , pp 303-308
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Mixed-species groups