Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 81–92

Dissolved oxygen and fish behavior

  • Donald L. Kramer

DOI: 10.1007/BF00002597

Cite this article as:
Kramer, D.L. Environ Biol Fish (1987) 18: 81. doi:10.1007/BF00002597


This essay reviews the behavioral responses of fish to reduced levels of dissolved oxygen from the perspective of optimization theory as used in contemporary behavioral ecology. A consideration of oxygen as a resource suggests that net oxygen gain per unit of energy expenditure will be the most useful currency for ecological models of breathing. In the process of oxygen uptake, fish always expend energy on perfusion, usually on ventilation and often on locomotion. These costs, and the risk of predation, will vary with oxygen availability and the type of behavioral response shown. The principal categories of behavioral response to reduced external availability of dissolved oxygen are (1) changes in activity, (2) increased use of air breathing, (3) increased use of aquatic surface respiration, and (4) vertical or horizontal habitat changes. Fish should choose whichever combination of responses minimizes the costs of meeting their oxygen demands. A small number of studies provides qualitative support for this prediction.


Air breathingAerial respirationAquatic surface respirationActivityHabitat selectionOptimality theory

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald L. Kramer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada