Mating behavior and sex change of the anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii, in the temperate waters of southern Japan
- Haruki Ochi
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
In the main habitat of the anemonefishes Amphiprion, their movements between host sea anemones are generally restricted because of the low population density of hosts and high predation pressures. On the contrary, movements of A. clarkii between hosts were usual in the present study area (temperate waters of southern Japan), where host anemones are abundant. The general social unit of the anemonefishes is an isolated group consisting of a monogamous breeding pair and a varying number of nonbreeders. In the present study area, however, monogamous pairs established territories almost contiguous to others and nonbreeders had home ranges on the outskirts of the pairs' territories. The high host population density allows A. clarkii to move between hosts for searching for mates and acquiring additional mates. Most pair bonds lasted for more than 6 months, but 13% of the pairs separated because of migration of a mate to another territory. Bigamy occasionally originated from a penetration into a territory of a breeder by a mated neighbor of the opposite sex after the former's mate loss. Among 18 males who had lost their mates, only 3 changed sex and others re-paired with immigrant females, migrated to unmated females' territories or invaded pairs' territories. In the present study area, sex change to female is not the best way for an unmated male to increase his future reproductive success because of a loss of time spent on sex change and an opportunity to re-pair with new mates larger than himself, but is adaptively maintained as the best of a bad situation for the unmated male.
- Allen, G.R. 1972. Anemonefishes: their classification and biology. TFH Publications Inc., Neptune City. 288 pp.
- Allen, G.R. 1975. Damselfishes of the south seas. TFH Publications Inc., Neptune City. 238 pp.
- Bell, L.J. 1976. Notes on the nesting success and fecundity of the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii at Miyake-jima, Japan. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 22: 207–211.
- Coates, D. 1982. Some observations on the sexuality of humbug damselfish, Dascyllus aruanus (Pisces, Pomacentridae) in the field. Z. Tierpsychol. 59: 7–18.
- Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 1960. Beobachtungen und Versuche an Anemonenfischen (Amphiprion) der Malediven und der Nicobaren. Z. Tierpsychol. 17: 1–10.
- Fautin, D.G. 1986. Why do anemonefishes inhabit only some host actinians? Env. Biol. Fish. 15: 171–180.
- Fricke, H.W. 1974. Öko-Ethologie des monogamen Anemonenfishes Amphiprion bicinctus (Freiwasseruntersuchung aus dem Roten Meer). Z. Tierpsychol. 36: 429–512.
- Fricke, H.W. 1979. Mating system, resource defence and sex change in the anemonefish Amphiprion akallopisos. Z. Tierpsychol. 50: 313–326.
- Fricke, H.W. 1983. Social control of sex: field experiments with the anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus. Z. Tierpsychol. 61: 71–77.
- Fricke, H.W. & S. Fricke 1977. Monogamy and sex change by aggressive dominance in coral reef fish. Nature 266: 830–832.
- Ghiselin, M.T. 1969. The evolution of hermaphroditism among animals. Quart. Rev. Biol. 44: 189–208.
- Gross, M.T. 1984. Sunfish, salmon, and evolution of alternative reproductive strategies and tactics in fishes. pp. 55–75. In: G.W. Potts & R.J. Wootton (ed.) Fish Reproduction: Strategies and Tactics, Academic Press, London.
- Keenleyside, M.H.A. 1979. Diversity and adaptation in fish behaviour. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 208 pp.
- Krebs, J.R. & N.B. Davies. 1981. An introduction to behavioural ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. 292 pp.
- Mariscal, R.N. 1970a. The nature of the symbiosis between Indo-Pacific anemone fishes and sea anemones. Mar. Biol. 6: 58–65.
- Mariscal, R.N. 1970b. A field and laboratory study of the symbiotic behavior of fishes and sea anemones from the tropical Indo-Pacific. Univ. Calif. Zool. 91: 1–33.
- Moyer, J.T. 1976. Geographical variation and social dominance in Japanese population of the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 23: 12–22.
- Moyer, J.T. 1980. Influence of temperate waters on the behavior of the tropical anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii at Miyakejima, Japan. Bull. Mar. Sci. 30: 261–272.
- Moyer, J.T. 1986. Longevity of the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii at Miyake-jima, Japan with notes on four other species. Copeia 1986: 135–139.
- Moyer, J.T. & L.J. Bell. 1976. Reproductive behavior of the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii at Miyake-jima, Japan. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 23: 23–32.
- Moyer, J.T & A. Nakazono. 1978. Protandrous hermaphroditism in six species of the anemonefish genus Amphiprion in Japan. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 25: 101–106.
- Moyer, J.T. & C.E. Sawyers. 1973. Territorial behavior of the anemonefish Amphiprion xanthurus with notes on the life history. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 20: 85–93.
- Nakashima, Y. 1987. Reproductive strategies in a partially protandrous shrimp, Athanas kominatoensis (Decapoda: Alpheidae): sex change as the best of a bad situation for subordinates. J. Ethol. 5: 145–159.
- Ochi H. 1985 Temporal pattens of breeding and larval settlement in a temperate population of the tropical anemonefish, Amphirion clarkii Japan. J. Ichthyol. 32: 248–257.
- Ochi, H. 1986. Growth of the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii in temperate waters, with special reference to the influence of settling time on the growth of 0-year olds. Mar. Biol. 92: 223–230.
- Ross, R.M. 1978a. Reproductive behavior of the anemonefish Ampiprion melanopus on Guam. Copeia 1978:103–107.
- Ross, R.M. 1978b. Territorial behavior and ecology of the anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus on Guam. Z. Tierpsychol. 46: 71–83.
- Schwarz, A.L. 1980. Almost all Dascyllus reticulatus are girls! Bull. Mar. Sci. 30: 328.
- Siegel, S. 1956. Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill, New York. 312 pp.
- Sokal, R.R. & F.J. Rohlf. 1969. Biometry. Freeman, San Francisco. 859 pp.
- Thresher, R.E. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. TFH Publications Inc., Neptune City. 399 pp.
- Thresher, R.E. & A.M. Gronell.1978. Subcutaneous tagging of small reef fishes. Copeia 1978: 352–353.
- Warner, R.R. 1975. The adaptive significance of sequential hermaphroditism in animals. Amer. Nat. 109: 61–82.
- Warner, R.R. 1984. Mating behavior and hermaphroditism in coral reef fishes. Amer. Sci. 72: 128–136.
- Yanagisawa, Y. & H. Ochi. 1986. Step-fathering in the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii: a removal study. Anim. Behav. 35: 1769–1780.
- Mating behavior and sex change of the anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii, in the temperate waters of southern Japan
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Volume 26, Issue 4 , pp 257-275
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Sex change
- Occasional bigamy
- Size advantage
- Conditional strategy
- Unique habitat
- Industry Sectors
- Haruki Ochi (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Mukaishima Marine Biological Station, Faculty of Science, Hiroshima University, Onomichi, P.O., 722, Japan