Reproduction and development of the South American freshwater stingrays,Potamotrygon circularis and P. motoro
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Observations of reproductive features and body measurements were made on wild-caught, freshwater stingrays, Potamotrygon circularis and P. motoro, from the Amazon drainage of western Brazil and southern Colombia. Further observations were made in Detroit's Belle Isle Aquarium on a captive pair of P. motoro and their descendants, which constitute the first known captive breeding colony of potamotrygonids. The gross structure and function of female and male reproductive systems are described. There is no obvious difference between those of the two species. They are aplacentally viviparous, the young being nourished in advanced stages by uterine milk secreted by trophonemata. Size at onset and completion of sexual maturation, breeding season and behavior, gestation period, litter size and sex ratios are discussed. Up to 21 proportional measurements were made on several fetal and postnatal stages of both species. Several proportional changes occur in very early fetal life, but most body proportions undergo only minor changes from advanced fetal through adult stages. A growth curve is proposed for P. motoro based on observations of the captive colony.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Alcock, A. 1982. Some observations of the embryonic history of Pteroplataea micrura. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (Ser. 6) 10: 1–8.
- Babel, J.S. 1967. Reproduction, life history, and ecology of the round stingray, Urolophus halleri Cooper. Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, Fish. Bull. 137: 1–104.
- Beard, J. 1890. On the development of the common skate (Raja batis). Fish. Bd. Scotland, 8th Ann. Rpt. Pt. 3: 300–311.
- Bertin, L. 1958. Sexualité et fécondation. pp. 1584–1652. In: P.P. Grassé (ed.) Traité de zoologie, 13, Fasc. 2.
- Breder, C.M. & L.A. Krumholz. 1941. On the uterine young of Dasyatis sabinus (Le Sueur) and Dasyatis hastatus (De Kay). Zoologica 26: 49–53.
- Brockmann, F.W. 1975. An observation on mating behavior of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana. Copeia 1975: 784–785.
- Castex, M.N. 1963a. Riverine rays: historic-geographical notes. Departamento de Ciencias, Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, Santa Fe, Argentina. 120 pp. (In Spanish).
- Castex, M.N. 1963b. Observations of the riverine ray. Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle). Comunicaciones Mus. Arg. Cienc. Nat., Hidrobiologia 1: 7–17. (In Spanish).
- Castex, M.N. & I.O. Maciel. 1965. Notes on the family Potamotrygonidae Garman, 1913. II. Distribution of Potamotrygon brumi Devicenzi & Teague 1942 in the waters of Santa Fe (Argentina). Dirección General de Recursos Naturales, Santa Fe, Publicación Técnica 14: 17–20. (In Spanish).
- Clark, R.S. 1927. Rays and skates. 2. Description of embryos. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 14: 661–683.
- Cottrell, K. 1976. Breeding a real problem fish: The freshwater stingray Potamotrygon laticeps. Tropical Fish Hobbyist, July, 1976: 89–98.
- Disler, N.N. 1967. Developmental stages of the stingray Trygon pastinacum, a representative of early fishes with intra-uterine embryogenesis. pp. 18–47. In: Morpho-ecological studies of fish development, Nauka, Moscow. (Translation from Ref. Z.H. Biol., 1967, No. 10140).
- Dobrizhoffer, M. 1822. An account of the Abipones. Vol. 3 London. (Cited by Castex, 1963a).
- Duellman, W.E. 1970. The hylid frogs of middle America. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Monograph 1. 753 pp.
- Gilbert, P.W. & G.W. Heath. 1972. The clasper-siphon sac mechanism in Squalus acanthias and Mustelus canis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 42A: 97–119.
- Halstead, B.W. & N.C. Bunker. 1953. Stingray attacks and their treatment. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2: 115–128.
- Junqueira, L.C.U., G. Hoxter & D. Zago. 1968. Observations on the biochemistry of freshwater rays and dolphin blood serum. Rev. Bras. Pesquis. Med. Biol. 1: 225–226.
- La Marca, M.J. 1964. The functional anatomy of the clasper and clasper gland of the yellow stingray, Urolophus jamaicensis (Cuvier). J. Morph. 114: 303–324.
- Langhammer, J.K. 1980. Husbandry of freshwater stingrays. The Detroit Zoological Society Magazine, Winter 1980, pp. 8–13.
- Leigh-Sharpe, W.H. 1922. The comparative morphology of the secondary sexual characters of Holocephali and elasmobranch fishes: The claspers, clasper siphons, and clasper glands. Mem. IV. J. Morph. 36: 199–220.
- Libby, E.L. & P.W. Gilbert. 1960. Reproduction in the clearnosed skate, Raja eglanteria. Anat. Rec. 138: 365.
- Marshall, N.B. 1966. The life of fishes. World Publishing, Cleveland. 402 pp.
- McCourt, R.M. & A.N. Kerstitch. Mating behavior and sexual dimorphism in dentition in the stingray Urolophus concentricus from the Gulf of California. Copeia 1980: 900–901.
- McKee, R.E. 1969. Freshwater stingrays born. Your Detroit Zoo 23: 13.
- McKee, R.E. 1975. Old-timers at the aquarium. Your Detroit Zoo 29: 6–7.
- Metten, H. 1939. Studies on the reproduction of the dogfish. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, B 230: 217–238.
- Prasad, R.R. 1945. Further observations on the structure and function of the nidamental glands of a few elasmobranchs of the Madras Coast. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 22B: 368–373.
- Price K.S. 1967. Copulatory behavior in the clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria, in lower Chesapeake Bay. Copeia 1967: 854–855.
- Putnam, F.W. 1870. Skates' eggs and young. Amer. Nat. 3: 617–630.
- Richards, S.W., D. Merriman & L.H. Calhoun. 1963. Studies on the marine resources of southern New England. IX. The biology of the little skate, Raja erinacea Mitchill. Bull. Bingham Oceanog. Coll. 18: 5–67.
- Russell, F.E. 1971. Poisonous marine animals. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City. 176 pp.
- Smith, D.S., M.L. Cayer & F.E. Russell. 1974. Membrane-limited microtubular aggregates in the venom secreting cells of a stingray. Toxicon 12: 331–335.
- Smith, H.M. 1945. The fresh-water fishes of Siam, or Thailand. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. I, 8: 1–622.
- Thorson, T.B. 1976. Observations on the reproduction of the sawfish, Pristis perotteti, in Lake Nicaragua, with recommendations for its conservation. pp. 641–650. In: T.B. Thorson (ed.) Investigations of the Ichthyofauna of Nicaraguan Lakes, School of Life Sciences, Univ. Nebr.-Lincoln.
- Thorson, T.B., C.M. Cowan & D.E. Watson. 1967. Potamotrygon spp.: elasmobranchs with low urea content. Science 158: 375–377.
- Thorson, T.B. & E.J. Lacy, Jr. 1982. Age, growth rate and longevity of Carcharhinus leucas estimated from tagging and vertebral rings. Copeia 1982: 110–116.
- Tricas, T.C. 1980. Courtship and mating-related behaviors in myliobatid rays. Copeia. 1980: 553–556.
- Wourms, J.P. 1977. Reproduction and development in chondrichthyan fishes. Amer. Zool. 17: 379–410.
- Wyman, J. 1864. Observations on the development of Raia bans. Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. (n.s.) 9: 31–48.
About this Article
- Reproduction and development of the South American freshwater stingrays,Potamotrygon circularis and P. motoro
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Volume 9, Issue 1 , pp 3-24
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Captive breeding
- Freshwater adaptation
- Growth rate
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. School of Life Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NB, 68588-0118, U.S.A.
- 2. Belle Isle Aquarium, Detroit Zoological Park, Box 39, Royal Oak, MI, 48068, U.S.A.
- 3. Belle Isle Aquarium, Detroit Zoological Park, Box 306, Belfast, NY, 14711, U.S.A.